|JOURNAL OF MEDICINE |
AND BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES
JOURNAL OF MEDICINE AND BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES (JMBS)
ISSN:2078-0273 | Next issue: May 30, 2013
The Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences is published 2 times per year in May and December. Journal publishes original papers in medicine and biomedical in general, but giving a preference to those in the areas of medicine and biomedical represented by the editorial board. All submitted papers are considered subject to the undersanding that they have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere. To be publishable, papers must treat new research, be well written, and be of interest to a significant segment of the science community. There is no publication fee. But, subscribe to receive 1 print copy (see example) of the journal is compulsory for authors. Please, see Print Subscription Price List for 2013.
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|May, 2013 | Vol. 4. No 1.|
1. Akyala A. Ishaku, Habibu Tanimu, Simon Agwale
Evaluation of CD4+, serum calcium and Gamma-glutamyl transferase in sero-positive HIV/AIDS drug experienced patients in Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria
Abstract: The mean parameters of CD4+, serum calcium and y-GT of 200 HIV positive test patients where evaluated and compared with corresponding mean parameters for 200 HIV negative control. These parameters gave a p-value of p>0.05. Confirming that the HIV has the ability of depleting CD4+ cells and it also affects epithelium activation and function, as well as the disruption of calcium homeostasis. The comparison of the HIV positive subject on-treatment with the no-treatment subjects for the mean parameters of CD4+, serum calcium and y-GT gave p-values of p=0.04, p=2.58 and p=0.02 respectively. These results opined that treatment is able to control the apoptotic effect of the HIV on the CD4+ cells and improve its count, thereby improving the immune deficiency conditions of the patient. These effects were also strengthen by a significant correlation for the CD4+ and serum calcium of the on-treatment subjects and the no correlation for the no-treatment subject, indicating that the no-treatment patients have a higher risk of suffering from the HIV induced complications. But there was a strong significant correlation for both subjects on treatment and no treatment for the CD4+ and y-GT of p=0.02 and 0.018 respectively with the no-treatment subject showing a greater significance indicative of the higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease due to the virus.
Keywords: HIV, Calcium, Gamma Glutamyl Transferase
Cite this article:
Akyala A. Ishaku, H. Tanimu, S. Agwale. Evaluation of CD4+, serum calcium and Gamma-glutamyl transferase in sero-positive HIV/AIDS drug experienced patients in Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences 2013; 4(1), 5-11.
2. Adeniran Samuel Atiba, Rasaq Akintunde Akindele, Temitope Adeola ‘Niran-Atiba, Daniel Adebode Adekanle
Product of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status of normal pregnant women living in rural and urban Nigeria
Abstract: People living in different communities are bound to be exposed to different dietary make up. Antioxidants are consumed on daily basis from diet. Despite this, pregnant women still suffer from complication that may arise from oxidative stress. Therefore this study was designed to determine differences in product of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and antioxidant status of normal pregnant subjects living in rural and urban communities of Nigeria. Study sites were booking clinics in rural and urban communities of Nigeria. Ninety seven and 87 normal pregnant women from urban and rural respectively were recruited into the study. Both plasma and haemolysate were prepared from each subject and these were stored at -20oC. Plasma sample was used for MDA, GPx, vitamins C and E assay while heamolysate was used for SOD assay. Variables were analyzed using SPSS version 16, taking level of significance to be 0.05 .The mean plasma level of glutathione peroxidase (GPx)(U/L) was higher in the subjects from rural (3157.09±1225.5) than urban (2620.15±1757.26) communities; this was significant, p<0.05. The mean value of superoxide dismutase (SOD)(U/L) was found to be lower in rural (87.34±28.82) than the urban (97.71±46.73) subjects, this was not significant (p>0.05). The plasma level of vitamin C (µmol/l) was observed to be higher in rural (41.33±20.37) than the urban (39.91±23.76) subjects; this was not significant (p>0.05). Similar finding was observed in plasma vitamin E (µmol/l) level, it was higher in rural (31.69±13.50) than in the urban (23.48±11.42) communities. This was significant (p<0.005). Lower plasma value of malondialdehyde (MDA)( µmol/l) was found in subjects in rural (0.99±0.65) than in the urban subjects (1.77±0.85). However, this was not statistically significant; p>0.05. We concluded that there were higher levels of antioxidants except for superoxide dismutase with corresponding decrease in product of lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the subjects in rural than urban communities. Antioxidant supplement may be more necessary in urban than rural community of Nigeria.
Keywords: free radical, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidise
Cite this article:
Adeniran S. Atiba, Rasaq A. Akindele, Temitope A. ‘Niran-Atiba, Daniel A. Adekanle. Product of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status of normal pregnant women living in rural and urban Nigeria. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences 2013; 4(1), 12-17.
3. Akyala A. Ishaku, M. Katsa, Haruna Y.T. Habibu, A. Daniel, A. Solomon
Antibacterial susceptibilty pattern of Salmonella sero-groups from pediatric out-patients age < 14 yrs attending Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Abstract: Background: Salmonellosis is a major health problem, especially among children in developing countries. Moreover, Salmonellae are becoming resistant to commonly used antimicrobials in most parts of the world. Investigation on the Salmonella has been very limited in Nasarawa State and such study lacks in Lafia The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of salmonella sero-groups and resistance pattern of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics in Nasarawa State. Methods: The study was conducted from Jan to Feb 2013. Diarrhoeal stool specimens were collected from 384 pediatric diarrhoeal out-patients (age < 14 years) using transport medium from Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital Lafia. Isolation and characterization were performed according to standard methodology. Results: Fifty nine Salmonella strains were isolated, of which serogroup A comprised 8.5%, B 28.8%, C 22%, D 13.6%, E 5.1% and S.typhi 22%. Among the isolates, 59.3% were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin, 47.5% to cephalothin, 40.7% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 35.6% to chloramphenicol, and less than 25.4% were resistant to other drugs. Among S.typhi isolates, 30.8% were resistant to chloramphenicol and this shows the emergence of chloramphenicol resistant S.typhi strains in Lafia.
Conclusion: Gentamicin, polymyxin B and nalidixic acid were found to be active against isolates of salmonella species including S. typhi.
Keywords: Diarrhoea, Salmonella, Serogroup, Antibiotic resistance, Pediatrics, out-Patient
Cite this article:
Akyala A. Ishaku, M. Katsa, Haruna Y.T. Habibu, A. Daniel, A. Solomon. Antibacterial susceptibilty pattern of Salmonella sero-groups from pediatric out-patients age < 14 yrs attending Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences 2013; 4(1), 18-23.
4. Joachim Osur, Alloys Orago, Isaac Mwanzo, Elizabeth Bukusi
The age specific practices and outcomes in women undergoing unsafe abortions in rural communities of Kenya
Abstract: Unsafe Abortion is common among young women. It is not however known whether the young women decide on their own to terminate the pregnancies, whether the methods they use are similar to those of older women, and whether the outcomes of their unsafely procured abortions are different from those of older women. This study therefore set to establish the age specific practices and outcomes of unsafe abortion. It was a cross-sectional survey and the setting was Siaya County, Kenya in East Africa. A sample of 320 women aborting unsafely and reporting to health facilities for completion of the process and management of complications were interviewed to determine their reproductive health profiles, decision making process for unsafe abortion, unsafe abortion methods they had used and outcomes making them seek healthcare. The study found that 76% of women aborting unsafely were between 10 and 24 years with 62% being nulliparous. 84% of them had undesired pregnancy. Younger women were likely to consult with a variety of people before making a decision to abort unsafely. Women with wanted pregnancy and aborting unsafely were likely to be of a younger age. The younger person was also more likely to use a wide variety of unsafe abortion methods resulting in more complications. Overall younger age was found to be a predisposing factor to riskier unsafe abortion practices and outcomes. It is recommended that youth focused programs be put in place to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortions among young people.
Keywords: unsafe abortion, age related practices, age related outcomes
Cite this article:
J. Osur, A. Orago, I. Mwanzo, E. Bukusi. The age specific practices and outcomes in women undergoing unsafe abortions in rural communities of Kenya. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences 2013; 4(1), 24-32.
5. Akyala A. Ishaku, Manasseh Katsa, Haruna Yakubu, Tanimu Habibu, Ashefo Daniel, Anzene Solomon
Incidence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of some clinical isolate of Salmonella typhi in Akwanga, Nasarawa state, Nigeria
Abstract: Background: Salmonellosis is becoming resistant to commonly used antimicrobials in most parts of the world. Investigation on incidence of some clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi has been very limited in Nasarawa State, especially in Akwanga. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of salmonella typhi and resistance pattern of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics in Akwanga, Nasarawa State. Methods: The study was conducted from Jan to April 2013. Diarrheal stool specimens were collected from 50 suspected typhoid patients in General Hospital and E.R.C.C Medical Center, Alushi, using transport medium from the two Hospital to Microbiology Lab of Innovative Biotechnology Lab, Keffi. Isolation and characterization of Salmonella typhi were done using standard morphological and biochemical methods. Antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out on the isolates using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on nutrient agar. The studied antibiotics are pefloxacin (10ug), Augmentin (30ug), gentamycin (10ug0, co-trimoxazole (30ug),ampicillin (30ug),,streptomycin (30ug0,nalixidic acid (30ug0, cephalexin (10ug),and ofloxacin (10ug). Results: out of the 50 samples under study, there is a yield of 30 pure isolate of S typhi giving rise to 60% incidence rate. Of the 30 isolates of S typhi,we did not observe complete sensitivity to any of the antibiotics,100 % resistance was observed in vitro to six anti-biotics(Pefloxacin,Ciprofloxacin,Augmentin,Gentamicin,Co-trimoxazole and Ampicillin);furthermore, each of the isolate showed multiple resistance to at least six antibiotics while eight (26.7%) isolates, however ,were resistance to all the antibiotics. The susceptibility pattern of the remaining to those four antibiotics with antibacterial activity against S typhi was 40% (streptomycin), 20.0% (Nalidixic acid),20.0% (cephalexin) and 10% (ofloxacin). Conclusion: Thought streptomycin showed highest antibacterial activity, more than 50% of the isolates were still found resistant to it, we therefore suggest the use of other antibiotics (probably as combination) for effective treatment of typhoid fever in Akwanga.
Keywords: Diarrhea, Salmonella, Antibiotic, resistance, out- Patient
Cite this article:
Akyala A. Ishaku, M. Katsa, H. Yakubu, T. Habibu, A. Daniel, A. Solomon. Incidence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of some clinical isolate of Salmonella typhi in Akwanga, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences 2013; 4(1), 33-36.
6. M. Amin Mir, M.M.S. Jassal, S.V. Tygi, Akash Singh
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytochemicals of Saraca indica
7. D. Kubmarawa, M.H. Shagal, A.M. Magomya, D.A. Kitan
M. Amin Mir, M.M.S. Jassal, S.V. Tygi, A. Singh. Proximate composition of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Amaranthus caudatus