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Vol. 2, No. 4, July 2010
NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES
Kabir Sadeghi, Fatemeh Nouban
A new stress-strain law for confined concrete under cyclic loading
Abstract: A new stress-strain formulation for confined concrete under cyclic loading is proposed. This law can be
used in numerical simulations to describe the stress-strain relationship for fibers or layers within the sections of
reinforced concrete elements.
In order to eliminate the problem of scale effect, a finite element model was generated and the simulated
and experimental results of tests on the prototype reinforced concrete column models subjected to cyclic loading
were compared. In this way, the proposed stress-strain law for confined concrete under cyclic loading was
accordingly modified and then validated.
Keywords: Non-linear, behavior, stress-strain law, confined concrete, monotonic, cyclic, loading
Dan Scurtu, Eugen Axinte, Vasile V. Merticaru
Optimizing of aerodynamic profiles defined as complex surfaces
Abstract: The aerodynamic properties (aerodynamic profile is the crucial element that generate the foil.) of a foil are
strong related to the geometrical shape of the surface. The paper suggests a method for the generation of hypersustenance,
which could determine the increase of the lift capacity simultaneously with the reduction of the drag
force and the defining of the surface capable to generate this effect. The method consists in launching of a
controlled fluid emission under the form of a jet via a slot situated in the trailing edge, throughout the entire
surface of the wing. The machining of such wing as a complex surface requires the use a 3 or 5 axes CNC
Keywords: Aerodynamic profile, optimizing, complex surface, CNC machine-tool
E.U. Ubeku, O.K. Ogbeide
Transient analysis of an M–driven earth electrodes in an N – layered soil
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a procedural methods of obtaining an effective earthing system that can
withstand impulse currents. The correlation of the transient impedance with the earth electrode resistance of
vertically driven earth rods buried in either a uniform soil, two layered soil or enhanced soil forms the main
presentation. A fast rising impulse current were preformed on various number of parallel connected earth rods of
different lengths and the resulting transient impedance and potential plotted.
Keywords: transient impedance, two-layer soil model, enhanced soil, impulse, effective earthing
Vasile V. Merticaru, Eugen Axinte, Marius-Ionut Ripanu, Sorin-Claudiu Iacob-Strugaru
Researches about the flank profile accuracy of the trapezoidal threads generated by thread whirling
Abstract: Typically for thread whirling processes are the errors of the flank profile of the processed threads. Majority
of these errors are provided by cutting schema and by the kinematics of the process, The present work proposes,
an algorithm able to numerically describe the complex profile of the flanks of trapezoidal external threads
generated by whirling and it presents some theoretical and experimental results obtained by applying this
algorithm. Experimental researches developed concerning the accuracy of trapezoidal external threads manufactured
by thread whirling proved the major influence of the cutting conditions upon the profile errors on the flank.
Some of these experimental results and, related to them, some considerations and conclusions are also presented
in the paper.
Keywords: manufacturing, accuracy, flank profile, numerical modelling, thread whirling, trapezoidal thread
Abstract: This paper presents a new Walsh function (WF) based method for measuring of three-phase reactive
power (RP) in unbalanced tree-phase systems. Proposed method simplifies the multiplication procedure required
for the evaluation the tree-phase reactive power components from instantaneous power signal using peculiar
properties of the WF.
Keywords: reactive power, measurement, unbalanced three-phase systems, analog signal processing, DSP, instantaneous power signal, Walsh function, phase shift
Onohaebi O. Sunday, Ogbeide O. Kingsley
Determination of power stations for upgrading in the Nigeria power system using minimum loss criteria
Abstract: The existing power stations in Nigeria generate far below their installed capacities leading to very low
reliability of power to consumers. Thus, this paper reviews the power generated in the various power stations in
Nigeria and analyze them to determine the most suitable power stations for upgrading. Each of the power station
was used as a slack bus to determine the maximum power that can be generated and the effects it will have on
bus voltages, power losses and line loading.
Keywords: Thermal, PHCN, Generation, Transmission, Power Stations, Hydro
S. Nandhakumar, V. Selladurai, V. Muthukumaran, S. Sekar
Haar wavelet approach to time varying model robot arm control problem
Abstract: This paper aims to study the parameters behavior and to estimate the servo error in the control of a robot
arm model by analyzing dynamics of the robot arm. The dynamics of robot arm has represented in the form of
second order differential equation. A meticulous attempts has been made to estimate the servo error by
comparing the solutions obtained using Single term walsh series (STWS) and Single-Term Haar Wavelet Series
(STHWS) method. The exact solution representing the arm model of a robot, has been compared with the
corresponding discrete solution at different time intervals. The absolute error between the exact and discrete
solutions have also been determined in order to suggest the method which improves the performance of a robot.
The validation has also been carried out with reference to the earlier research output appeared in this field of
Keywords: Control System, Robot dynamics, Single Term Walsh Series, Single-Term, Haar Wavelet Series, Singular and Non-Singular systems.
A.I. Ogbonna, E.N.C. Okafor
Treatment procedures for Itakpe iron ore deposits in Kogi state Nigeria
Abstract: The discovery of iron ore deposits in commercial quantities in Itakpe, Kogi State Nigeria was the principal
factor in the decision to site an iron and steel making complex in Ajaokuta Kwara State. This paper reviews some
of the principal treatment procedures adopted for the beneficiation of Itakpe iron ore. It notes that full exploitation
of the Itapke iron ore has been hampard by the high contents of sulphur and phosphorous.
Keywords: Itakpe ore deposits, ore contaminants, beneficiation, agglomeration, profitability of mine.
H. Benahmed, A. Bensafi, M. Benhamou, A. Boussaïd
Dynamic scattering properties of weakly charged cyclic polymers in solution
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a theoretical model for the investigation of dynamic scattering properties of
ternary mixtures made of two weakly charged cyclic polymers of different chemical nature, which are trapped in a
common good solvent. Such a theory extends some introduced one, in order to study the dynamics of similar
mixtures made of linear polymers. For simplicity, the small ions, such as counterions and coions, are assumed to
be point-like, and hence, only the apparent diffusion of polyions is accounted for. The obtained results are
naturally compared to those already observed for weakly charged linear polymer blends in solution. The main
conclusion is that, the circularity of chains drastically affects the dynamic properties of the considered ternary
Keywords: Cyclic polymers; Charges; Dynamic diffusion; Rouse model; Relaxation frequency; Random phase approximation.
N. Amrane, M. Benkraouda
Positron Annihilation in piezoelectric semiconductor ZnO
Abstract: Electron and positron charge densities are calculated as a function of position in the unit cell for Zinc
Oxide. Wave functions are derived from pseudopotential band structure calculations and the independent particle
approximation (IPM), respectively, for the electrons and the positrons. It is observed that the positron density is
maximum in the open interstices and is excluded not only, from the ion cores but also to a considerable degree
from the valence bonds. Electron-positron momentum densities are calculated for (001,110) planes. The results
are used to analyze the positron effects in ZnO.
Keywords: Zinc Oxide, piezoelectric semiconductor, piezoelectric materials, positron annihilation
N.A. Hoshan, Firas M. F. Al-Quran
Green's function in some mixed boundary problems for heat equation
Abstract: In this paper we will discuss the use of Green's function in the solution of inhomogeneous heat equation
subject to a mixed boundary conditions of the first and second kind in cylindrical coordinates. The method of dual
integral equations forms a basis for the construction of a Green's function, with the aid of a Laplace transform and
separation of variables.
Keywords: Green's function, mixed problems, dual integral equations
Mamoun Hussein Mamoun
A proposed robust routing protocol for MANET
Abstract: We present the design and performance evaluation of a new robust routing protocol (NRRP) based on the
trust vector model. In our proposed protocol, each node would evaluate its own trust vector parameters about
neighbors through monitoring neighbor’s pattern of traffic in network. At the same time, trust dynamics is included
in term of robustness. Then we integrated trust model into Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) which is the most
typical routing protocols in MANET. We evaluate the performance the proposed protocol by comparing the
simulation results of it with and without the standard DSR..
The simulation results demonstrate that our proposed routing protocols can effectively detect malicious
nodes and mitigate their attacks.
Keywords: MANET, MANET Routing Protocols, Newly Routing Protocol.
Christos Theodorou, Maria Kordaki
Super Mario: A collaborative game for the learning of variables in programming
Abstract: This paper presents the design and implementation of a collaborative game for learning about the various
uses of variables in programming, by high school students. This is a 4-level game that was designed and
implemented using the programming environment Scratch integrating the well known collaborative method Jigsaw
(1). The basic learning goals of this game are to provide students with opportunities: a) to conceptualize some
different aspects of variables in programming, by playing, interacting, and modifying this game and b) to become
equipped with appropriate knowledge -at the end of the proposed activities- to collaborate and construct their own
Keywords: variable, programming, computer games, Scratch
S. Karthik, S. Kannan, M.L. Valarmathi, V.P. Arunachalam, T. Ravichandran
An performance analysis and comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Routing protocols in MANET
Abstract: Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network
without the aid of any stand-alone infrastructure or centralized administration. Mobile Ad-hoc networks are selforganizing
and self-configuring multihop wireless networks where, the structure of the network changes
dynamically. This is mainly due to the mobility of nodes.
Keywords: On-demand, Table driven, DSR, AODV, DSDV, Adhoc, MANET
S.O. Onohaebi, S.O. Igbinovia
Development of a MATLAB program to compute bus voltages in the Nigeria electrical power system
Abstract: In this paper, power flow analysis was carried out with the aid of a computer program developed, using
Gauss-Siedel method and run in matlab 7.01 environment to compute bus voltages in the Electrical Power
System in Nigeria.
Keywords: Bus voltage, Matlab, Power World Simulator, Gauss-Siedel, Newton Raphson
Affine Variety and Hilbert’s Basis Theorem
Abstract: In this paper we study algebraic sets and give some properties of irreducible varieties and their
corresponding prime ideals . Also, we give a new proof for Hilbert ' s Basis Theorem: if R is a Noetherian ring
then so is the polynomial ring R [χ1, χ2,...,χn] , using the “ ascending chain condition on ideals ”
Keywords: Algebraic set, Irreducible variety,ascending chain condition, Noetherian ring.
Maged George Iskander
A min-max approach for stochastic fuzzy goal programming
Abstract: This paper introduces a suggested min-max approach to stochastic fuzzy goal programming. When it is
infeasible for the decision-maker to achieve certain desirable degrees for the membership functions of the fuzzy
goal constraints, then the min-max approach can be utilized to avoid the infeasibility. This means that the maximum
underachievement of the membership functions has to be minimized. The min-max approach is illustrated,
for different achievement degrees, by a computational study.
Keywords: Stochastic fuzzy goal programming, Min-Max approach, Chance-constrained approach
Bani Mukherjee, Bijay Kumar Mandal
Study of gravitational lensing constraints on the exponential Cardassian model based on the Friedmann – Robertsion Walker (FRW) equation
Abstract: In this paper we mainly focus our attention to investigate some observational consequences of a flat,
matter dominated and accelerating scenario, on the constraints, the parameters n and q which fully characterize
the exponential Cardassian model and also the modified version of exponential Cardassian model of Liu et al 
in 2006. In Figure-1(a) and 1(b) when the redshift ZCard increasing the effective parameter of equation of state
ωT for the total cosmological fluid and equation of state parameter ωx of effective dark fluid are also increasing.
Keywords: Gravitational lensing, SIS model, Exponential Cardassian model, FRW Equation, Redshift, Power law index
Iqbal H. Jebril
Bounded Sets in Random n-Normed Linear Space
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to introduce the notion of bounded sets (certainly bounded, perhaps bounded,
perhaps unbounded and certainly unbounded) in random n-normed linear space.
Keywords: random n-normed space; bounded sets; unbounded sets.
M.G. Shehata, A.A. Abdou, Tarek Y.M.A. El-Hariri, Ahmed S. Mousa
Heavy minerals: Acase study on the Gebel Ghorabi Member; Bahariya Oasis, Western desert, Egypt
Abstract: The study of the heavy minerals content separated from 83 sandstone samples representing the Gebel
Ghorabi member (Lower Cenomanian) of Bahariya Formation revealed the predominance of ultrastable minerals
derived originally from metamorphic and igneous rocks. The studied sandstones were affected by recycling
processes, mostly caused by some degree of tectonic activity, which left its print on their mineral and physical
properties. At least two unconformity surfaces are recorded.
Keywords: Heavy minerals, Gebel Ghorabi Member, Provenance, Cluster analysis, Surfaces of unconformity.
F.Y. El Kady, L.K. Mohamed, S.A. Shaban
Hydrotreatment of Kerosene Petroleum Fraction to Improve Its Properties
Abstract: Technical Kerosene petroleum fraction has been hydrotreated in a fixed bed continuous reactor (cata-test
unit) . The study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of catalytic hydrotreatment conditions on kerosene
to improve its quality as fuels with lower sulfur, nitrogen and aromatics contents.
Keywords: Hydrotreatment, Aromatic hydrogenation (AHYD), Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and Hydrodenitrogenation (HDN)
Nahla A. Barakat, Safwat H. Maaty, Ashraf Al-Koly
Outcome of Congenital diaphragmatic defects: three years experience
Abstract: Aim: To study the presentation, management and outcome of congenital diaphragmatic defects in Kuwait.
Patients and Methods: The medical records of all infants with congenital diaphragmatic defects Referred to Ibn-
Sina hospital, Pediatric Surgical Department, Kuwait from Jan 2005 to Oct. 2008 were retrospectively analyzed.
Results: There were 51 newborns (31 female/ 20 male), 32 cases were newborn with a mean birth weight of
2400 gm (850- 4135 gm), and mean GA of 35 weeks, (28- 41wks); 37 infants (72%) had Bochdalek hernia, 5
(10%) had Morgagni hernia and 9 (18%) had eventration of the diaphragm.
Keywords: Diaphragmatic hernia, eventration, newborn, management, outcome, associated anomalies
Wafaa Gameel Mohamed Ali, Nahed Abdl Menom El Sebai
Effect of problem-based learning on nursing students’ approaches to learning and their self directed learning abilities
Abstract: Background: Increasingly complex needs and expanding roles in the delivery of health care require
professional nurses to be capable critical thinkers and self-directed learners.
Design: A one-group before–after quasi-experimental design was used. Method:
this study was conducted on students of Bridging program of College of Health Science for Females, Ministry of
Health in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Results: the R-SPQ-2F scores indicated that for the deep approach to learning, the post-test mean
score was noticeably higher than that at the pre-test (p= .001) and a significant difference was observed between
the pre-test and post-test mean scores for the surface approach to learning (P=0.03).
Conclusions: it was concluded that PBL as a method and philosophy is an effective approach to fostering deeper approach to learning
and improving self-directed learning abilities among nursing students. Recommendation: successful introduction
of PBL in nursing education will improve professional performance.
Keywords: Problem based learning, learning approach, self directed learning abilities
Fakhria Jaber Muhbies, Nazar A. Sheren Al-Doski
Attitude of patients toward cancer and its treatment
Abstract: Cancer is considered the second leading cause of death in developed countries there were some 6.2
million cancer related deaths, accounting for 12% of all deaths globally. In the year 2002, ten millions new cases
of cancer were diagnosed (5.3 million in men and 4.7 million in women (5).
Keywords: Attitude, Cancer, Iraq
M.G. Shouman, S.A. Abd El-Latif, S.S. Khattab, S. Makkar
Pediatric acute kidney injury: outcome by dialysis modality and disease severity
Abstract: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in children is a catastrophic, life threatening event which has a poor prognosis
despite the development of modern techniques for treatment. This work aimed to study AKI in pediatric patients to
assess the modalities of renal replacement therapy, and outcome to predict the risk factors. Forty seven pediatric
patients suffering from AKI were included. Exclusion criteria included neonates, post operative cardiac surgery,
and acute on top of chronic renal failure (CRF) patients.
Keywords: Acute kidney injury, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, PRISM III
Alaa Ali, Mona M. Sallam, Gihan A Fathy, Ola Mohy el din, Seham A. Awad, Amira Ahmed
Epidemiological Study of the Prevalence of Bronchial Asthma and other Atopic Diseases among School Children in Egypt
Abstract: The aetiology of asthma and allergic diseases remains poorly understood, Asthma is the most common
chronic disease of childhood. Almost 1 in 8 school-aged children are affected by asthma, and 10% of children
(compared with 5% of adults) take medication for it. There is a Strong association between asthma, hay fever, and
eczema; however, the inter-relation between atopy, atopic disease, asthma, and wheeze is somewhat complex.
Keywords: Prevalence of asthma, Asthma symptoms, atopic diseases, school children
Eman Talaat Elshamaa
Developing a control action plan for infection prevention at the endoscopy unit
Abstract: Flexible endoscopy was developed 30 years ago. The advantages of this technology are several but one
serious disadvantage is the liability of exposure to infection. Objectives: to assess endoscopy team (doctor,
nurse, and worker) to identify their actual role in applying infection control measures in endoscopy department,
and developing an action plan for infection prevention.
Keywords: Endoscopy, Infection control, Action plan, Sterilization, disinfection, Health team, Trust, Prevention, Assessment, motivation.
Sohayla M. Attalla, Mohamed A. Ghanem, Seham, A. Gad Elhak, Abdel Aziz, A. Ghanem
Inhalational Anaesthetics and Cholinesterase activity… Goal Directed Better Postanaesthetic Issue
Abstract: Clarifying the importance of safety in the new evolution in anesthetic drugs during surgery concerning
anesthesia induced cholinesterase depression is of special importance especially in agricultural countries where
farmers population are continuously exposed to pesticide residues which inhibit both true and pseudocholinestrase
Keywords: inhalational anaesthetics, cholinesterase activity, surgical operations
Ganjar Samudro, Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo
Review on BOD, COD AND BOD/COD ratio: a triangle zone for toxic, biodegradable and stable levels
Abstract: This paper reviewed research works on biodegradability of organic matter containing materilas, attempting
to provide a tool for treatment and monitoring strategies. Organic matter parameters were simplified as BOD,
COD and BOD/COD ratio. Treatment methods were classified into natural, physical, chemical, biological, phytotechnological
and combined treatment. For various operating conditions, it was formulated the zonation of the
BOD/COD ratio and characterized by the limits of toxic, biodegradable and acceptable or stable zones.
Keywords: BOD, COD, treatment methods, BOD/COD zones
Azza A. Ezz El-Din, Eman E. Aziz, S.F. Hendawy, E.A. Omer
Impact of phosphorus nutrition and number of cuttings on growth, yield and active constituents of artichoke
Abstract: Response of growth, yield and active constituents of artichoke was studied under different phosphorus fertilization
doses and number of cuttings in the two successive seasons. Plants which were cut once at the end of
growing season and fertilized with 200 kg P2O5 fed-1 recorded the highest seed yield. Artichoke plants produced
maximum fresh leaves yield when cut three times and fertilized with 150 kg P2O5 fed-1. Chemical analysis of dried
leaves indicated that flavonoids percentage ranged from 0.54-0.63%, while polyphenols percentage ranged from
1.23-1.45%. An adverse relation between flavonoids and polyphenols was observed.
Keywords: Cynara scolymus L., phosphorus, number of cuttings, growth, seed yield, flavonoids, polyphenols.
A.A.M. Ragab, Eman A. Tantawy, Sh.M. Abd El-Rasoul
A Comparison between traditional and recent bioinocula on Growth and productivity of faba bean (Vicia faba l.) grown in calcareous soil
Abstract: Agriculture scientists made a lot of efforts to improve organic agriculture aiming food safety. For five
decades until now legume inoculation by Rhizobia was successful.So it is very important to compare Rhizobia
with the Effective Microorganisms (EM) inoculation as a progress in organic agriculture. Three cultivars of Faba
bean were inoculated by Rhizobia and EM separated or combined.
Keywords: Rhizobia, Effective Microorganisms (EM), faba been cultivars
A.A. Abdel-Monem, H.M.S. El-Bassiouny, M.M. Rady, M.S. Gaballah
Role of tryptophan and prozac (5- hydroxy tryptamine) on the growth, some biochemical aspects and yield of two sunflower cultivars grown under different saline soils
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in a soil of three different salinity levels (1.56, 4.68 and 7.83 dS/m)
during two successive seasons to study the effect of different concentrations (0.00, 2.50 and 5.00 mg/l) of
tryptophan and Prozac (5-hydroxytryptamine) on improving tolerance of two sunflower cultivars (Hysun 336 and
Euroflor) grown under different saline conditions. Application of either tryptophan or prozac resulted in significant
increases in plant growth, seeds yield and oil yield / Feddan concomitantly with an increase in the level of IAA,
photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates and protein contents. The maximum increase was recorded in
plants treated with 5.00 mg/l of either tryptophan or prozac. The previous changes were discussed in relation to
roles of tryptophan or prozac in enhancing sunflower cultivars to salt tolerance.
Keywords: Sunflower cultivars, Tryptophan, Prozac, Saline soils, Growth, Yield
M.Sh. Sadak, M.M. Rady, N.M. Badr, M.S. Gaballah
Increasing sunflower salt tolerance using nicotinamide and α – tocopherol
Abstract: Reducing the spread of salinization and increasing the salt tolerance of high yielding crops are key global
issues. In this regard an experimental design was laid out during two successive seasons of 2008 and 2009 at
three different sites of soil salinity levels (1.56, 4.68, and 7.83 dS/m) at the experimental farm of faculty of
Agriculture, Fayum University, Egypt. The experiment was conducted to determine how can priming seeds in α-
tocopherol or nicotinamide mitigate the negative effects of salinity on sunflower growth and yield.
Keywords: sunflower, salinity, α-tocopherol, nicotinamide, growth, yield, IAA, carbohydrates, protein and oil
A.G. Ahmed, S.A. Orabi, M.S. Gaballah
Effect of Bio-N-P Fertilizer on the growth, yield and some biochemical components of two sunflower cultivars
Abstract: In environments with low nutrient concentrations, plants are stressed by the lack of adequate nutrients.
Therefore, it is necessary to use Bio-NP bio-fertilizer which contains two strains of bacteria Azospirillum lipoferum
and Azospirillum brasilense both promotes shoot growth and root development in crops as they ensure better
Keywords: sunflower, bio-fertilizer, Azospirillum, growth, yield, chemical components
Eman E. Aziz, Azza A. Ezz El-Din, E.A. Omer
Influence of zinc and iron on plant growth and chemical constituents of Cymbopogon citratus L. grown in newly reclaimed land
Abstract: Zinc and Iron play important roles in the composition and characterization of root exudates in graminaceae
family grown under stress condition. Lemongrass oil is one of the most important essential oils produced in the
world due to their use in perfumery, flavour and pharmaceutical industries. Two field experiments were conducted
in newly reclaimed land at the Agricultural Experimental Station of National Research Centre (Nubaria, Behira
Governorate,West of Nile Delta of Egypt) to study the influence of foliar spray with Zn ( 0,100 and 200 ppm) and
or Fe (0,100,150 and 200 ppm) on growth, yield and chemical composition of Cymbopogon citratus plant.
Keywords: Cymbopogon citratus, essential oil, GLC, Iron, Zinc EDAT, newly reclaimed land
Amany M. Sallam, Hoda I. M. Ibrahim, Mona A.M. Soliman, B.A.A. Kandil
Germination improvement by priming Teosinte seeds in water for enhancing the fodder production potential
Abstract: An experiment was carried out (at the laboratory test on Seed Technology Research Dept.) to study the
effect of soaking in water treatment on Teosinte seed germination and two field experiments carried out during
two Successive summer seasons of 2007 and 2008 at two location ; New Valley and Giza Agric Res. center
stations , the experiment was conducted to study the effect of mineral nitrogen (0-60-120 kg N fed -1), plant
growth promoting Rhizobacetria and/or N2- fixer bacteria and their combination on seed quality traits of local
teosinte. The experimental design was laid out using 17 treatments and three replications . Chemical fertilizer
levels, single biofertilizer application, dual biofertilizer application and a mixture of biofertilizers and chemical
Keywords: Teosinte, Soaking, Germination, Inoculation, Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Azospirillum sp., Pseudomonas sp., N2-fixing
Osama A. Nofal, Adel B. El-Nasharty, Nadia M. Badran
Sustainable improvement of nutrients utilization using micronutrients foliar application on potato plant
Abstract: Two field experiments were carried on alluvial soil at one of the private farms, Gharbia Governorate,
Egypt, during two successive seasons 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. The study focused to evaluate the effect of
foliar application of micronutrients compound (2.5% Fe, 4.5% Mn, 6.5% Zn and 0.5% Cu) on nutritive status of
potato var Diamond. Foliar application was carried out at vegetative growth (50 days after planting) and at tuber
formation (60 days after planting) with four rates (i.e. 0, 400, 800 and 1200g/fed).
Keywords: Potato, leaves, tubers, macro, micronutrients, foliar application.
A.M.A. El-Shafai, A.A.O. Fakkar, M.A. Bekheet
Effect of row spacing and some weed control treatments on growth, quality and yield sugarcane
Abstract: Two field experiments were carried out at Shandaweel Agricultural Research Station, Sohag Governorate
in 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 seasons to study the effect of row spacing of sugarcane and some weed control
treatments on growth, quality and yield of sugarcane. Sugarcane variety viz., Phil.8013 was spring-planted in
three row spacing of 80, 100 and 120 cm, and ten weed control treatments were applied: single application of
Triclopyr-butoyl 48% EC at the rate of 200 cc/fed., Bromoxynil 24% EC at the rate of 1 l/fed as post-emergence,
Bentazon 48% AS at the rate of 1 l/fed., Tribenuron-methyl 75% DF at the rate of 8 g/fed the previous herbicides
were applied as post-emergence at 30 days after planting; the application of each of the four herbicides followed
by one hand hoeing 30 days from herbicide application; hand hoeing three times at 25, 45 and 65 days after
planting (DAP) and unweeded (check). A split plot design with three replications was used. Row spacing was
allocated in the main plots, while weed control treatments were randomly distributed in the sub plots.
Keywords: Row spacing, weed control, Triclopyr-butoyl, Bromoxynil, Bentazon, Tribenuron methyl, hand hoeing and sugarcane
Emtenan M. Hanafi, Enas N. Danial, K.A. Abd El
Origanum Vulgaris could be a novel antimycotic agent for treatment of mycotic mastitis in goat
Abstract: Fungi are widely distributed in the environment, sometimes cause health hazards and are very difficult to
eradicate. Asperigellus flavus is among the toxigenic fungi that produce aflatoxins, the primary carcinogen for
animals and it is secreted in biological fluids of infected cases. Mastitis is one of its out coming and it is
associated with economic losses due to inferior quantity and quality of milk.
Keywords: Origanum vulgaris, fungus, mastitis, apoptosis, goat, Asperigellus flavus
Sheeba Valsson, Alka Bharat
Influence of canyon geometry on the variations in maximum and minimum air temperatures
Abstract: Every neighborhood has its own urban configuration with respect to width of road, height of structures
abutting the road and the orientation of the road. This variation controls the incoming solar radiation as well as the
outgoing long-wave radiation and also controls the air flow thereby affecting the temperature. The intention of this
paper is to statistically formulate a relationship between the ratio of width of road and height of structure abutting it
(H/W) and the maximum and minimum temperatures and their difference. In this research it has been statistically
proved that higher the H/W ratio lower is the difference in maximum and minimum temperature and a regression
equation if formulated to predict the difference.
Keywords: Urban Canyon, Street design, Sky view factor (SVF)
Grosu Veronica, Bostan Ionel
IAS/IFRS standards for smes and the impact on the Romanian accounting system
Abstract: After five years of debates and consultations, in July 2009, International Accounting Standards Board
(IASB) published its referential accounting for SMEs (in June 2004 the IASB draw first document entitled:
Preliminary Views Accounting Standards for Small and Medium Entities).
Keywords: IAS/IFRS light, simplification, small and medium enterprise, public responsibility
Abstract: This study integrates means-end chain theory and network theory to explore consumer cognitions toward
services offered by Bed and Breakfast (B&B) and the role consumers played in the communication networks with
respect to B&B information dissemination. Individuals in the advice network play as intermediary roles within their
communication network; however, they also form a smaller network and organized by themselves.
Keywords: Means-end chain, network role, B&B
Mateş Dorel, Socoliuc Marian, Hlaciuc Elena, Haiduc Cristian, Ursu Dorel
The evolution of the economical and financial communication means used by the companies in the new current world context
Abstract: The theme of the financial and economical informing is in the attention of the researches for a long period
of time, insisting on important aspects such as the ones connected to the identification of the borders between the
financial-economical informing and the company level communication, the contents characterizing it, the subject
produced and spreading this information, the ones that are direct and indirect users, the channels by which they
are spread. The objective of this paper is to identify the most important aspects connected to the communication
channels, the motivation of choosing certain of them, their evolution and nonetheless the optimization of the companies’
economical-financial communication. In time, we have assisted to a major awareness of the role that
communication can occupy, and its necessity to identify itself with the company and must be understood in an
Keywords: economical-financial communication, communication channels, standards IAS/IFRS
Wann-Yih Wu, Yu-Chen Hsiao, Chen-Su Fu
An analytical model of the product life cycle - an application of thermodynamics
Abstract: Based on the modification model of the product life cycle, this study aims to integrate relevant marketing
model and develop a hierarchical marketing efforts model to identify different levels of efforts needed to be taken
at different stages of product life cycle. The concept of entropy, which is widely used in physical science and
thermodynamics, is applied in this study to explain the phenomenon of product life cycle using marketing mix
activities as the agents to change the quantity of entropy.
Keywords: Thermodynamics; Product life cycle; Analytical hierarchy process
Ade Ibiwoye, Joseph O. Ideji, Babatunde O. Oke
The determinants of life insurance consumption in Nigeria: a co-integration approach
Abstract: The relevance of life insurance in Nigeria’s financial system cannot be over emphasized. Evidence has
shown that in the past 35 years, it has provided a range of financial services for consumers and had been a major
channel of investment in the Nigerian capital market. But what determines life insurance consumption in Nigeria
remains unknown. This study examines the determinant of life insurance consumption in Nigeria during the period
1970 – 2005 within an error correction framework.
Keywords: life insurance, life Insurance consumption, Nigeria, co-integration approach
Abstract: The aim of this study is a) to investigate the relationship between Storytelling and Environmental
Education for Sustainability (EES) and to demonstrate its significance, b) to detect any possible restrictions
bearing upon the interconnection of these two fields, c) to seek the criteria upon observance of which this
relationship could be fruitful and above all effective, in leading to the achievement of EES objectives.
Keywords: Environmental Education for Sustainability, Storytelling, Interdisciplinary, Environmental Storytelling Activities, complex spherical /global thinkind, analogical thinking, values, culture, environmentale attitudes, skills, action
Ahmad Puad Mat Som, Alhilal Furqan
Nurturing Experiential Learning in Co-Curriculum Activities: Case Studies of Tourism Clubs in Secondary Schools
Abstract: Non-formal education can impact a person’s life through experiential learning, and the concept recognizes
the non-institutional aspect of learning and offers a more pragmatic approach to learning. Co-curriculum activity,
as part of non-formal education, is seen both to supplement existing academic curricula and allow students the
opportunity to build non-academic, civic and political skills. It is often viewed as a primary context of development
for school students. While teachers’ teaching and students’ learning are fostered through planned activities,
students can also realize their need for recreation or diversion.
Keywords: experiential, learning, co-curriculum, tourism
Muhammad Manzoor Malik, Fazalur Rahman
Imapct of theories of distacne education on teaching learning process
Abstract: Theories play an important role in the development of any system. Same is the case with the theories of
distance education. Therefore, the focus of this study was to evaluate the theories of distance education and their
impact on teaching learning process. The objectives of the study were to analyze the concept of distance
education, state the teaching learning process of distance education, and to evaluate how the theories of distance
education are used in teaching learning process and what is their impact.
Keywords: distance education, teaching learning process, impact of theories
Abstract: The present study was a response to the report of an alarming increase in homicides perpetrated by
African American males 14 to 18 years in Houston (Fox & Swatt, 2008). The Intent was to determine if similar
increases occurred in other counties in Texas. However the annual homicide rates in the counties were not high
enough for statistical analyses so violent felony referrals were used instead.
Keywords: violent felony, incarceration, school dropout, racial differences, correlations, delinquency
Abstract: This research examines relationships between Arab media and several different institutions including
government in general, democracy specifically, and Islam. The primary purpose of this research is to gain not only
broad, but also in-depth understanding of Arab governments and their control of media. One of the key issues
discussed is the role of the Arabic media channel, Al-Jazeera, in the Arab region.
Keywords: Al-Jazeerea, press democracy, Middle East, arabic news channels
The Generation of Christian Ethics
Abstract: Christianity as any other religion and what M. Foucault called épistémè1 did not bring itself into being but is
the effect of numerous influences. For purposes of brevity we generally divide those influences between those
that are attributed to Judaism and Greek philosophy that played an essential role in early Christian theology (cf.
St. Augustine). Greek thought provided Christianity with ideological contours since most of theology is more or
less directly connected with Platonic and Aristotelian theory. On the other hand, Judaism created a moral system
that is fully embedded in Christian ethics.
Keywords: Judaism, Christianity, Monotheism, Morality, Greek Philosophy
Azizeh Khanchobani Ahranjani
Number system of the head noun in English and Persian languages
Abstract: Nouns as a central part or the head of a complex noun phrase are used in singular or plural forms. These
forms have the number agreements. In English language the sub classifications of number system are : nouns
identified as a) singular in form, Either number, b) plural in form, singular in number, c) singular in form, plural in
number, and d) singular in form, singular in number. e) plural in form, either number f) plural in form, plural in
number. A contrastive study of the number system and its sub classifications in English and Persian languages
reveals some similarities and differences.
Keywords: English language, Persian language, Head noun, Complex noun phrases. number system
Omar Ibrahim Alomoush
On linguistic aspects of auto-antonyms in arabic
Abstract: This study investigates auto-antonyms in Arabic, a phenomenon which has not received much attention by
Arab semanticists. An auto-antonym is a word which contradicts itself in the sense that it has two opposing meanings.
In most cases, the contexts in which Arabic auto-antonyms occur contribute to avoiding misinterpretation
and ambiguity. On top of that, this paper casts light on the factors which have brought this phenomenon about,
providing an investigation of this phenomenon by demonstrating each determinant together with relevant autoantonyms.
Keywords: polysemy, sound change, social and psychological motivations, blending, lexical interpretation in Quranic context, variations in the dialects of the Arabic language.