of Academic Research...
Welcome to "International Journal of Academic Research" (IJAR-Azerbaijan), the bimonthly (January, March, May, July, September, November) multidisciplinary journal of science!
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Vol. 3, No. 1, January, 2011 (In 3 parts).
1stPART. / NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES
Marina Andrade, Manuel Alberto M. Ferreira
Some considerations about forensic DNA evidences
Abstract: This paper refers problems raised for the forensic identification and inference, using DNA evidence. As it is
easily understood, given the delicate meaning of the subject, even in judicial terms, there is a concern on the
safeguard of the people involved in forensic processes. Concretely, the problems of the correct use and evaluation
of the DNA evidence in court are presented and discussed, since beyond the legal aspects, biological and
statistical ones must be considered.
Keywords: DNA profiles, evidence, prosecutor’s fallacy
Shoa'a JadAllah Al-Hijaili, Manal AbdulAziz
Biometrics in health care security system, iris-face fusion system
Abstract: Background objectives: Security is considered a corner stone for health-care information systems as they
contain extremely sensitive information. The aim is to provide healthcare personnel access to the right information
at the right time while ensuring high patient privacy. Methods: We propose to apply the multimodal biometric fusion system to the highest level of security in the
hierarchical architecture of electronic medical record (EMR). Multimodal biometric identification system is built
combining information from both face and iris unimodal. Results: 1) Increasing the number of images alone without including various image qualities will not insure
performance improvement. By this we mean, the overall group of images used should be composed of different
image quality (from poor to high quality) to match the actual circumstances of the real user. 2) As unimodal, Iris has
better performance than face, and the best performance was observed with CS2 and CS4. Conclusion: The presented Master thesis proposes the application of multimodal biometric security system
to the highest level of security in the hierarchical architecture of electronic medical record. It is proved that the
combination of iris and face unimodal into our proposed multimodal fusion system has higher performance than
each unimodal separately. We observed that multimodal biometric is a way to reduce the quality requirement of
Keywords: hierarchical architecture, electronic medical record, EMR, multimodal biometric, unimodal biometric, authentication security system
Khalil Yaghi, Samer Barakat, Zeyad M. Alfawaer, Mohammad Shkokani, Ayman Nassuora
Knowledge sharing degree among the undergraduate students: a case study at applied science private university
Abstract: The objective of this study is to understand the student’s perception of knowledge sharing among
undergraduate students in Jordan; the case study was conducted at applied science Private University (ASPU).
Methodology: A questionnaire was used for collecting data and 360 undergraduate students from ASPU in Jordan
participated in the study. Finding: Most of the students thought that Knowledge Sharing through sharing lecture
notes, power point slides, and other learning resources, among students shall benefit all and existing University
culture does not provide sufficient support for sharing knowledge. On the contrary voluntarily sharing information
was strongly refused and positive attitude that sharing knowledge reduces student competitiveness among peers.
And most of them confirmed that there is lack of interaction between those who need knowledge and those who
can provide knowledge. Conclusion: Our research has identified several dimensions of knowledge infrastructure
which are considered supporting knowledge sharing behavior: University culture, University structure, students,
and information resources. This research is based on statistical analysis to explain how knowledge infrastructure is
able to shape knowledge sharing behavior.
Keywords: Knowledge sharing, Knowledge Management, Explicit knowledge
E.N.C. Okafor, D.C. Idoniboyeobi, I.O. Akwukwaegbu
Surge protection practice for equipment in substations
Abstract: The surge voltages, especially those due to lightning have very high magnitudes. Therefore, power systems
require adequate protection against direct lightning strokes. Protection of transmission lines against natural or
lightning over voltages and minimizing the lightning over voltages are done by suitable line design, providing guard
and ground wires, and using surge diverters. This paper discusses suitable techniques to protect transmission lines
and apparatus at substations (Switchgears and transformers).
Keywords: Transmission lines, Substations, Switchgears, Transformer, Ground wires, Counterpoise, Expulsion gaps, Protective tubes, Surge diverter
Ali Haydar, Kamil Dimililer
A genetic algorithm for calculating eigenvalues of the spheroidal wave functions
Abstract: Evolutionary algorithms have been extensively used in many fields of science as an optimisation tool. This
paper presents the use of genetic algorithm, which is a basic evolutionary algorithm, to calculate the eigenvalues of
the spheroidal wave functions. The main advantages of the genetic algorithm compared to the standard procedures
used for this purpose are that it does not require any initial estimate for the eigenvalue and it can also be used at
the branch points without any additional numerical modification. Another advantage of using the genetic algorithm
is that the accuracy does not depend on the size parameter. The proposed approach is explained and results are
compared with some eigenvalues published or calculated by some well known methods.
Keywords: Spheroidal wave functions, spheroidal eigenvalues, genetic algorithm.
Abstract: A new method is proposed to obtain an optimal scheduling sequence for flow-shop scheduling problems
involving transportation time .The proposed method is very simple and easy to understand and also, provides an
important tool for decision makers when they design a scheduling for constrained flow-shop scheduling problems
with 3 machines. The proposed method is illustrated with help of numerical example.
Keywords: flow-shop scheduling problem; Transportation time; optimal sequence
Ch. Fahad Azim, Dur-e-Jabeen, Syed Faiz Ahmed
FEC performance enhancement of mobile Wimax by controlling trace back length
Abstract: In the advance revolutionaries world increasing the speed of wireless networks require a reliable solution for
data transfer. In this paper, intensive work on the decoding of the concatenated coding scheme has been
implemented. The decoding of the concatenated RS-Convolutional coding scheme is based on the soft decoding
and the soft/hard decision of the component codes. The performance of the decoding of those concatenated codes
has been evaluated on the Gaussian channel.
Keywords: convolutional, RS- Reed Solomon, Veterbi coding
Marius Chirugu, Dragos Paraschiv, Gianina Madalina Timofte
Measurement and testing camber gears with cnc klingelnberg P 65 machines
Abstract: This paper shows how to measure and realized the test camber gears with CNC machine KLINGELNBERG
P 65 with the clamping device for measuring the workpiece on the machine with hidroplast punch. Recording and
interpretation of data on gears with camber that will be measured through the sheet is realized an operation control
and control chart.
Keywords: camber gears, control chart, hidroplast punch, measurement
C.C. Mbaocha, G.A. Chukwudebe, E.N.C. Okafor, S.O.E. Ogbogu
Recursive estimation of vehicle position with kalman filter estimator
Abstract: A good filtering algorithm can remove noise from electromagnetic signals while retaining the useful
information in the case of radio communication systems. But Kalman filter is a good tool or set of mathematical
equations that provides an efficient computational (recursive) means to estimate the state of a process, in a way
that minimizes the mean of the squared error. This paper describes basic concepts that enable one to design and
implement a Kalman filter in a real world problem. The paper uses a vehicle navigating along a straight line to
illustrate how kalman filter effectively minimizes the measurement error covariance.
Keywords: Kalman filter, measurement error covariance, recursive estimation
AL Mahasne Mayas Mohammad
Increasing of vehicle threshold resistance
Abstract: The aim of this investigation is to calculate the requirement of suspension system and its components in
automobile. The results indicate that the suspension system is subjected to some problems at turning which reflect
negatively on the performance of automobile.
Keywords: Hydraulic Damper, Suspension system, Vehicle, Resistance threshold.
Ayyub Ansarinejad, Mohsen-Sadegh Amalnick, Mohammad Ghadamyari, Samad Ansarinejad, Loghman Hatami-Shirkouhi
Evaluating the critical success factors in ERP implementation using fuzzy AHP approach
Abstract: Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is a high technical cross-functional information system to improve
organizational performance and competitiveness by streamlining business processes and eliminating duplication
of work and data. Since ERP systems have lots of advantages for the organization, the ERP implementation is not
straightforward and involves significant risks.
Keywords: ERP implementation, Critical Success Factors, group decision making Fuzzy AHP.
Opara F. Kelechi, Okorafor N. Godfrey
Survey of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over wireless networks: issues, challenges and solutions in Nigeria
Abstract: With the emergence of New Technology in the last decade, the uses of handheld devices and laptops have
become very common. Most of these devices interconnect using wireless links. TCP is the most widely accepted
reliable, connection-oriented, full-duplex, byte stream transport level protocol that is in use today. It is an end-toend
protocol in wired networks that support flow and congestion control.
Keywords: TCP, Wireless Network, Fixed Host, Mobile Host, and Internet
Somya Adwan, Hamzah Arof
Dynamic time warping approach toward face patterns detection
Abstract: This paper proposed a method for face and facial pattern detection based on similarity search by using
dynamic time warping algorithm. The image boundaries were located using edge detection information, and dynamic
time warping is applied to search for the minimum distance between the template and the input image partitions.
Keywords: dynamic time warping algorithm, facial pattern detection, computer vision
J.E.O. Ovri, Michael Iroh
Design and installation of a Cathodic Protection System using magnesium anode
Abstract: Design of a Cathodic Protection System for a mild steel pipe using sacrificial magnesium anode was
investigated. The soil resistivity was determined using the wenner-four pin method and this was found to be
2000Ωcm. The pipe was externally coated with polytape wrapping and a protecting current of 0.019mA corresponding
to a current density of 0.02mA/m2 above the design requirement of 0.01132mA and 0.01mA/m2
respectively were obtained. A protecting potential of -1100mV was obtained which is in the range (-850 to -
1150)mV for protected mild steel confirmed that the pipe was cathodically protected.
Keywords: Cathodic protection system, mild steel, soil resistivity, magnesium anode, polytape wrappings.
F.S. Kazemi, R. Tavakkoli-Moghaddam
Solving a multi-objective multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem with particle swarm optimization
Abstract: In this paper, a new mathematical model for a multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem
with positive and negative cash flows, is presented that optimizes bi-objectives, The first objective is maximization
of the net present value (NPV) with two types of commonly used payment models and the second one, is
minimization the makespan and floating time (i.e., maximization of robustness).we introduced a multi-objective
particle swarm optimization (PSO) that combines with genetic operators. To prove the efficiency of our proposed
PSO, a number of test problems taken from the project scheduling problem library (PSPLIB) are solved. The
computational results show that the proposed PSO outperforms the NSGA-II.
Keywords: Multi-objective multi-mode resource-constrained, Negative and positive cash flow; Pareto archive particle swarm optimization; Multi-objective genetic algorithm; NSGA-II
O.C.N. Ndukwe, O.A. Ndubuka
Characterization of colloidal polystyrene crystals (Ø118nm) in deionized condition
Abstract: An aqueous polystyrene suspension, diameter 118nm, has been characterized. Shear moduli measured by
torsional resonance spectroscopy increased with particle concentration, determined by static light scattering. The
conductivity also increased with number density. The suspension at particle number of 17.33μm-3 showed a BCC
(body-centered cubic) crystalline phase. 0.7μm-3 was the minimum number density for an ordered phase; below
this value crystallization did not occur no matter the extent of deionization. At number density less then 1μm-3 and
lattice constants greater than 1000nm the sample existed in three phases; crystalline-coexistence, coexistencefluid,
Keywords: Polystyrene colloid, characterization, deionization, number density, shear modulus, colloidal crystals
Fazli Öztürk, C. Ölçücü
Ethnobotanical features of some plants in the district of Şemdinli (Hakkari-Turkey)
Abstract: This study had been carried out in Şemdinli a town of Hakkari province between 1991 and 2000. In the
region there had been a searching about some plants surrounded the area and in addition there had been
searched their local names and their usage in many different ways. In this study are given various knowledge about
95 useful plants grown in the region 59 of them are reported for the first time. In addition to the all of the identified
plants, their vernacular names and their medicinal uses have also been included in the list.
Keywords: Ethnobotany, Şemdinli, Turkey
Ghassem Habibi Bibalani
Investigation on Pyrus Sp. root growth in first tree years
Abstract: Vegetation Roots is been used for slope stability and Cause stability force versus failure that improve slope
instability. For this purpose, whatever the root growth rate is much more for trees in Initial three-year growth can
Cause Faster soil stability improvement. This study looked at North Iran for determination root biomass growing in
Initial three-year growth seedling of Pyrus Sp.. Data available for 1-, 2- and 3-year-old Pyrus Sp. seedlings indicate
that rate of seedling root biomass growth was about 1 and 1.4 gr for 1, 2 and 3- year-old, respectively.
Keywords: Pyrus Sp., root growth, Iran, Vegetation Roots
A.M. Mona Soliman, A.M.O. El-Bawab, El-M.A. El-Kholy
Productivity of some barley cultivars under different methods and amounts of irrigation water
Abstract: Two field experiments were carried out during the successive growing seasons, 2008/2009 and 2009/2010
on new land of Mahmoud Yassin's Farm in Cairo Alex. Desert Road to study the production of some barley
cultivars (Giza 123, Giza 124 and Giza 125) under methods and amounts of irrigation water. The obtained results
revealed that there were significant differences between cultivars, irrigation and the obtained effect between them
on: plant height, spike length, No. of spikes/m2, No. of grains/spike, spike grain weight, weight of 1000- grains
(grain index), biological, grain and straw yields, crop index and water use efficiency (WUE).
Keywords: methods and amounts of irrigation water, barley cultivars, Hordeum vulgare L.,
Abstract: Culturing of the sensitive Macrophomina phaseolina (Mp-12) isolate on carbendazim continuously for eight
successive passages significantly increased resistance. Use of carbendazim alternately with captan, zineb and
mancozeb for eight successive passages significantly increased resistance. Use of carbendazim in mixture with
zineb and mancozeb reduced resistance on agar plates. Inoculation of M. phaseolina on sweet potato roots
continuously for eight successive passages increased the resistance. Carbendazim alternately and in mixture with
captan, zineb and Mancozeb completely inhibited the growth of pathogen at 3rd passage.
Keywords: charcoal rot, carbendazim, Macrophomina phaseolina, passage, resistance
Raed A.I. Bashitialshaaera, Kenneth M. Persson, Mohammad Aljaradin
Estimated future salinity in the Arabian gulf, the Mediterranean sea and the red sea consequences of brine discharge from desalination
Abstract: Seawater desalination constitutes an important source for water supply to the population bordering the
Arabian Gulf, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Red Sea. The three regions represent about 11.8% of the world land
area and the countries hosted approximately 9% of the world population in 1950 and 2008 and are projected to do
so again in 2050. Population statistics for a 100-year period has been used including a prognosis from 2010 to
2050. Data on desalination plant capacity covering 12 years from 1996 to 2008 has been summarized and a
prognosis of the increase in desalination for the three regions until 2050 developed. The results obtained for
desalination capacity in the study area were 62%, 58%, and 60% of the world capacity for 1996, 2008, and 2050,
Keywords: Arabian Gulf; Mediterranean Sea; Red Sea; Desalination; Water-Salt balance; 1D-advectiondiffusion; Salinity
Hala M. Koura, Ashraf Galal, Dina M. Kandil, Manal F. Elshamaa, Eman A. Elghorori, Eman S. Khalifa
Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase - Associated Lipocalin as a marker of disease activity in patients with lupus Nephritis
Abstract: Background:/b> Renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with poor prognosis.
Conventional clinical parameters are not sensitive or specific enough for detecting ongoing disease activity in the
Methods: Thirty six patients with a mean age 14.3 yrs with biopsy proven lupus nephritis were assessed for
disease activity using the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 update in a cross-sectional
Results: NGAL levels didn’t differ with age weight and sex of patients. Lupus nephritis patients had
significantly higher NGAL levels than did healthy controls or those with JIA (p=0.0001) NGAL levels were strongly
correlated with renal disease activity(r=0.48, p=0.0001) but not with extrarenal disease activity score.
Conclusion: Urinary NGAL is a promising biomarker in children and adolescents with SLE nephritis. The
results of the current study require validation in a larger longitudinal cohort to more accurately delineate NGAL
excretion in children, adolescents and adults with lupus nephritis.
Keywords: PKU, bone mineral density, diet control
Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad, Mohammadreza Bemanian, Saeed Farmahin Farahani, Ali Tajik, Parisa Taghavi
Association of mental health and work environment in hospital workers
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between mental health problems and work
environment in hospital workers. In this comparative study 200 hospital workers in two hospitals in Tehran, Iran
were recruited. 100 workers were working in an old hospital and 100 were working in a new hospital. We described
for them about the study and wanted from them to fulfill GHQ-28 questionnaire. The GHQ-28 cut off point was 21
for considering a worker as a case with disordered general health.
Keywords: Mental Health, Hospital Environment, Workers
Ali Asghar Gharachorlou, Seyed Jamal Hashemi, Hamid Mirzaee, Nadereh Rashtchizadeh, Haedeh Mobaiyen
Survey of methionine and aspargine amino acids effects on trichophyton rubrum and trichophyton verrucosum growth in safe peoples and suffering peoples to dermatophytosis under invivo and invitro conditions
Abstract: In this study the effect of methionine and aspargine amino acids on trichophyton rubrum and trichophyton
verrucosum in safe peoples and suffering peoples to dermatophytosis under invivo and invitro conditions were
studied. From safe and suffering to dermatophytosis peoples blood sample were taken and amount of aspergine
and methionine amino acids in this peoples serum by HPLC method were measured and so noted fungus were
cultured in cultures media with difference concentrations of aspargin and methionine.
Keywords: aspargine, methionine, trichophyton rubrum, trichophyton verrucosum.
Abstract: Background: Today's, Performance of nursing requires a cognitive ability that includes problem solving,
decision-making, and clinical judgment. Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy
in which students collaboratively solve problems and reflect on their experiences.
Aims: The present study aims to assess the effect of problem-based learning on
undergraduate nursing students enrolled in nursing administration course at Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura
University. Design: The study will use experimental comparative design. Methods: The study is conducted at the
Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing , Mansoura University.
Results: A major finding of this study was that
there was statistical significant difference between students knowledge, problem solving grades and self-directed
learning nursing of students learned by problem based learning and those learned by lecture method. (significant
p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: It was concluded that there is a positive effect and the influence of PBL teaching strategy
on students enrolled in the third year of an undergraduate nursing program. Students in the PBL group gained
more knowledge and were more motivated for learning than those in the lecture group. PBL is a potentially
powerful approach for students to gain practical problem-solving experience and self-directed learning.
Keywords: Nursing education program, Problem-based nursing, problem solving, Self-directed learning.
Junaid Ahmed, Hemant Mathur, Payal Tripathi, Saurabh Goel, Mohit Pal Singh
Intraosseous Hemangioma of the Mandible: A Case Report
Abstract: Intraosseous vascular lesions are rare conditions, comprising only 0.5% to 1% of all intraosseous tumors.
They mainly occur in the second decade of life especially in women. The most common location is vertebral
column and skull, although rare instances of its occurrence in the mandible have also been reported. Central
hemangioma of the mandible and maxilla is extremely rare. Although the mucosal and soft tissue lesions are
readily suspected by their clinical appearance, the infrabony lesions may be difficult to distinguish visually.
Clinically, the patient may be completely symptom-free or may present characteristic symptoms. The most frequent
radiographic finding is a multilocular radiolucent image with honeycomb or soap bubble appearance. There are
various therapeutic alternatives, although surgical excision remains as the gold standard.
This article reports a case of a 17 year-old female who presented the clinical, radiological and histological
features of intraosseous hemangioma involving mandible.
Keywords: Hemangioma, Honeycomb, Embolization
Mona A. Abdel Hamid, Iman A. Fahmy, Hany M. Labib, Nervana A. Khalaf
Association of tumour necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphism with Pseudoexfoliative glaucoma in the Egyptian population
Abstract: Objective: TNF-α is one of the most important factors recognized in the pathogenesis of pseudoexfoliative
glaucoma (PEXG). The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of the tumour necrosis factor alpha
(TNF-α) gene polymorphism G-308A in the onset of pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG) in Egyptian patients.
Methods: The TNF-α polymorphism G-308A was analyzed in 50 patients with PEXG and 20 healthy
unrelated controls by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism
Results: The AA and GA genotypes were strongly associated with PEXG, while the GG genotype was
found at a higher frequency in controls as compared to patients.
Conclusion: The present study concludes that the TNF-α polymorphism G-308A is strongly associated with
Keywords: TNF-α, tumour necrosis, alpha gene polymorphism
Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou, Türkan Kutlay Merdol, Peyman Mikaili, Yenar Bektaş
Assessment of the nutritional status and affecting factors of elderly people living at six nursing home in Urmia, Iran
Abstract: Average life expectancy throughout the world increases year by year, leading to an increase
in the overall proportion of elderly people. There are many tools for identifying the nutritional risks, but the most
extensively evaluated tool is the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) test.
The aim was to determine the socio-economic and health factors affecting on nutritional statistics
among elderly people living at nursing home in Urmia, Iran.
Keywords: Nursing home, Elderly, Nutrition status, Malnutrition, MNA Test, in Urmia, Iran
Abstract: Dairy products which provide a healthy and free of disease nutrient from domestic animals around the world
can always be considered very important and necessary. Animal Science researchers who create herds of dairy
and meat in countries around the world believe that breeding programs could flock healthy and resistant to
diseases and parasites. In the province of Ganja (Azerbaijan Republic) 120 head of pure breed cattle of Caucasus,
Simmental and Cuban Zebu were selected that a hybrids which were created yielded higher rate of production of
meat, chemicals, etc. with the control group.. In this study the rate of meat in the first group was 129.5 kg and in
second group Caucasus hybrid and Cuban Zebu showed increase of167.2 kg. the Amount of nutrients in meat of
the hybrids also showed the difference.
Keywords: Simmental, Caucasus, Cuban Zebu, Ecology
Guntur Priambodo, Yetrie Ludang, Rachmat Boedisantoso, Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo
Transpiration factor, peaking factor and plants capacity of Jatropha in phytoremediation of mercury polluted soil
Abstract: The research studied the effect of mercury on transpiration factor, peaking factor and plants capacity of
Jatropha during soil phytoremediation amended with leachate and compost. Loss in weight of growth media
measured the evaporation and evapotranspiration levels. Daily and hourly observations were carried out during six
months period. Results showed that mercury has significantly affected transpiration factor, peaking factor and
plants capacity to conduct transpiration stream. The three parameters decreased as mercury concentration
Keywords: Phytoremediation, Jatropha, transpiration factor, peaking factor, plants capacity
Abstract: This study was intended to find a potential species of endophytic bacteria isolated from Brugelera
gymnorrhiza and a potential protein and secondary metabolite of endophytic for antibacterial purposes. Samples
used in this study were different part of organs and habitats of Brugelera gymnorrhiza at East Java. They were
collected to find the number of endophytic bacteria species and identified the environmental influence on the
species. Results were used as the updated information of new antimicrobial which was very useful for human life
and the others.
Keywords: bacteria, endophytic, antimicrobial, Brugelera gymnorrhiza
Abstract: Pyrophyllite is local materials from South Malang, East Java Indonesia. Most cities in developing country
have high concentrate of air pollution effecting on acid rain which decreases durability of pavement. Using silica in
flexible pavement is expected to improve durability in Hot Rolled Sheet (HRS) mixture. This research aims to
analyse influence of usage of pyrophyllite as filler and fine aggregate with treatment of acid solution (1.5489 × 10-2
Molar) to assess Residue of Strength Index (RSI). The optimum filler of this mixture is pyrophyllite 4% and dust
stone 5% with 6.34% optimum asphalt content, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate from stone for the first
Keywords: pyrophyllite, filler, fine aggregate, durability, HRS, RSI
Mohd. Suberi Ab Halim, Mastura Jaafar, Omar Osman
Acid rain resistance of hot rolled sheet using pyrophyllite as filler and fine agregate
Abstract: Scholars in the construction industry have identified sound financing as key to business survival. Hence, this
study aims to explore the financial health of Malaysian construction firms using financial ratio analysis. Financial
ratios are statistical yardsticks that relate to two numbers obtained from the income statement of a company,
balance sheet, or both. Financial ratio analysis enables relative comparisons of company performance over time,
as well as comparison of performance across different companies.
Keywords: Construction industry, construction firm, financial ratio
Abstract: Low Impact Development is an approach to environment friendly land use planning. In fact, LID is a new
growing approach which principles aim at rectifying the shortcoming of the previous innovative land development
practices and leads the upcoming development towards a more environmentally sensitive land development
Keywords: Low Impact Development (LID), Sustainable Site Planning and Design
Derya Elmalı Şen, İlkay M. Özdemir, Nimet Candaş Kahya, Reyhan Midilli Sarı, Ayşe Sağsöz
The effects of transparency-opacity concepts in building on the perception of façades
Abstract: Transparency is a condition where the transmission of light through an object and seeing the things behind it
is not prevented; whereas opacity is a characteristic of that object where it is not transparent and doesn’t transmit
Keywords: Façade, transparency, opacity, perception, conceptual and material transparency-opacity
S.K. Ghoreishi, A. Khodadadi
Partial Comparison of association components in two independent multi-way contingency tables
Abstract: We consider the problem of partial comparison of association structures in two independent multi-way
contingency tables by accounting model uncertainty. When the partial association structures are really deferent, it
may be of interest to order them on the basis of partial association strength via intrinsic association parameters.
Maybe a plausible way to do this is a majorization ordering which is vastly applied in reliability analyses to order
two life time systems, each made up of p parts. We discus it`s details in this work. A real data set illustrates our
Keywords: Association models, Majorization ordering, Model uncertainty, Ordinal categorical variables
José António Filipe, Manuel Alberto M. Ferreira, Manuel Coelho
An ethical issue in anti-commons management. Aquaculture case in Portugal
Abstract: Ethical problems are a very relevant issue present in many aspects of real life. These situations can be
examined through several branches and under several ways or grids of analysis, modern or classic. The
relationship among people, either in business or current life management, involves problematic aspects in real life
situations, which have often ethical consequences.
Keywords: Anti-commons, Anti-commons Tragedy, Property Rights, Exclusion Rights, Ethics
Javad Afrasiabi, Hamed Ahmadinia
How financing effect on capital structure, evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE)
Abstract: This study is an empirical analysis of the financing effect on the Capital Structure of the company. For this
purpose and in terms of financing methods, first we have divided companies into two groups, including
Corporations with much leverage in their capital structure and corporations with high stock issuance. Then we
analyzed them by using the capital asset pricing model and capital structure theories. All of this research has been
made in connection with the listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange from 2006 to 2009.
Keywords: Capital Structure, Financing, CAPM, Capital Structures Theory
Mahdi Mahdiloo, Abdollah Noorizadeh, Reza Farzipoor Saen
A new approach for considering a dual-role factor in supplier selection problem
Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of a factor in supplier selection analysis which may be classified either an
input or an output. The quantity of such a factor may influence the relative efficiency of the Suppliers. Despite the
fact that there are several publications addressing dual-role factors, it seems that their idea of classifying a factor
as an input or an output within a single model cannot consider the causality relationships between inputs and
outputs. A simple approach is proposed to resolve this limitation and to consider dual-role factor as well. A
numerical example demonstrates the application of the proposed approach in supplier selection context.
Keywords: Supplier selection; Data envelopment analysis; Dual-role factor
Abstract: Job satisfaction is one of the most widely discussed issues in organizational behavior, personnel and human
resource management and organizational management. As teaching does require a great deal of thoroughness
and commitment, so in teaching it is more important to have mental commitment and loyalty than physical
presence. In this study the researcher investigated the present level of job satisfaction among the faculty members
of university of Balochistan.
Keywords: Faculty Members, Job Satisfaction, Motivator Factors, Hygiene Factors
Abstract: This study looks at the relation of attributes of the neighborhood and satisfaction with them to evaluate the
overall neighborhood satisfaction. The concept of neighborhood has been severely blurred if not lost as a result of
the development practices of the last several decades. So research must first come to a conclusion regarding how
to define a neighborhood. Then it will reveal the concept of satisfaction and the term in neighborhood scale. Since
Neighborhood satisfaction refers to residents’ overall evaluation of their neighborhood and dimensions of
satisfaction consist different issues which refer to the aspects, characteristics, and features of the residential
environment, so several factors that influence the neighborhood satisfaction will be introduced in various categories
as the result of the essay.
Keywords: neighborhood, satisfaction, neighborhood satisfaction, dimensions of neighborhood satisfaction
Nadejda Bulankina, Sophia Polyankina
Philosophy of contemporary polycultural education
Abstract: The goal of the article is to consider one of the urgent issues of modern school, i. e. education in the context
of multiculturalism. In the article there are compared the concepts of “multicultural education” in the USA and
“polycultural education” in Russian Federation. Meanwhile it is noted that conceptual structure of modern
polycultural education is going through a syncretic phase, which means that inventory and concretization of
concepts appearing in the papers on this topic are indispensable.
Keywords: multicultural education, polycultural education, multiculturalism, personal self-determination in culture.
Asif Jamil, Malik Amer Atta, Jalil-ur-Rehman Baloch, Muhammad Ayaz
Gender perceptions and differences of opinion on effectuality of sports in preventing antisocial behaviours
Abstract: Effectuality of sports in modifying and bringing some positive shifts in the behaviours of its participants is
evidenced through scholarly studies by the sports scientists. It is important that men and women both
simultaneously acknowledge and admire the quality of sports and apply it for controlling antisocial behaviours and
modifying the youth deportments.
Keywords: Gender, sports participation, effectuality, antisocial behaviours
Muhammad Nisar Ulhaq, Azhar Mahmood, Sheikh Tariq Mahmood, Shazia Zamir
A comparative study of the performance of community model schools and government higher secondary schools in Pakistan
Abstract: This study was designed to examine the performance of Community Model Schools working under
Community Participation Project. The objectives of the study were (1) to find out the performance of Community
Model Schools at Higher Secondary School Certificate level examinations for years 2006, 2007 & 2008. (2) To find
out the performance of Government Higher Secondary School Certificate level examinations for years 2006, 2007
& 2008. (3) To compare the results of Community Model Schools (CMS) and Government Higher Secondary
Schools in years 2006, 2007 & 2008.
Keywords: Community participation, Secondary Schools, Performance, Community Model Schools.
Stergiani Giaouri, Anastasia Alevriadou, Lena Lang
Ambiguous figures perception and theory of mind understanding in children with intellectual disabilities: an empirical study with some educational implications
Abstract: Ambiguous figures (AF) are a special class of images that can give rise to multiple interpretations. Several
researchers in early social-cognition suggest that the perception of AF may be related to an understanding of one’s
own and others’ mental states and also correlated with success on theory of mind (ToM) tasks (1-3). However, the
relation between AF perception and ToM understanding has been rarely studied in children with intellectual
disabilities (ID) (either ID of genetic origin or non-specific ID). The aim of the present study was to determine the
specificity of understanding multiple and ambiguous representations to different groups of children with ID. The
results suggested that the understanding of the ambiguity of perceptual representations might be related to more
abstract higher-order cognitive capacities, which might also be impaired in children with ID. These findings are
discussed in terms of the specificity of the etiology-related cognitive profiles of ID groups, considering the
educational inclusion practices.
Keywords: Ambiguous figures, Educational implications, Intellectual disabilities, Theory of mind
Remziye Ceylan, Müdriye Yıldız Bıçakçı, Neriman Aral, Figen Gürsoy
A study on the empathic skills of preschool teachers
Abstract: This study was conducted in order to explore whether teachers’ age, educational background, type of
institution they work for, duration of work, type of work, ways of spending spare time, and the number of children in
their group created a difference in preschool teachers’ empathic skill levels. The study involved 224 teachers
working in the public and preschools affiliated to the Ministry of Education and located in the center of Ankara. Data
about the teachers and preschools was gathered by using a “General Information Form”. Teachers’ emphatic skills
were determined by the “Scale for Emphatic Skills - B Form” designed by Dökmen (1988). The results of study
showed that teachers’ age, educational background, type of institution they work for, duration of work, type of work,
ways of spending spare time, and the number of children in their classes do not create a difference in their
empathy skill levels (p>.05).
Keywords: Pre-school teacher, empathy, child, development of empathy.
Riasat Ali, Aqila Akhter, Saqib Shahzad, Najma Sultana, Muhammad Ramzan
The impact of motivation on students' academic achievement in mathematics in problem based learning environment
Abstract: The major focus of the study was to check the impact of motivation on students' academic achievement in
problem based learning environment in the mathematics elementary level. The study was experimental in nature
and pre-test- post test design was used the study.
Keywords: Problem Based Learning, Mathematics, Motivation
Muhammad Iqbal Naeem, Syed Asad Abbas Rizvi
A comparative study of English language curriculum of secondary school certificate (SSC) and general certificate of education ordinary level (GCE O-level) in Pakistan
Abstract: This study was aimed at comparing the curriculum of General Certificate of Education Ordinary level (GCEO
level) and Secondary School Certificate of education (SSC) English language programmes in Pakistan.
The population of the study constituted of all the Principals and teachers of Secondary School Certificate
(SSC) and General Certificate of Education-Ordinary level (GCE-O level) in Punjab.
Keywords: English language, secondary school certificate, General Certificate of Education Ordinary level
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to ascertain the veracity of the criticism leveled against methods of teaching
science at the secondary school level by checking the present level of understanding of concepts among students
in the subject of Chemistry. The objective of the study was to explore the present level of concept formation during
teaching of Chemistry to Class IX students.
Keywords: Secondary school, Class IX students, subject of Chemistry
Fatemeh Mosazadeh-Sayadmahaleh, Yusef Esmaeilzadeh-Estakhrbijar, Ghassem Habibi Bibalani
Roles of Cypress in poems by Hafez
Abstract: Cypress is the common name used for many plants in the cypress family (Cupressaceae), which is a conifer
that grows in the northern temperate regions. Cypress has been the first choice as a tree for Iranian Gardens.
Khwaja Samsu d-Din Muḥammad Hafez-e Sirazi, known by his pen name Hafez (1315–1390) was a Persian lyric
poet. Cypress has been used at 70 poetry lines that at 33 lines used this plant in Metaphor and at 11 lines used in
Simile. Cypress has been used for Metaphor for Beloved stature (in 4 lines), Beloved (in 12 lines), Tall Beloved (in
17 lines). Cypress has been used for Simile for Willow (in 1 line), Coming Slowly (in 2 lines) and Stature (in 6 lines),
Freedom (in 1 line) and Loyalty (in 1 line).
Keywords: Simile, Metaphor, Cypress, poems, Hafez
2ndPART. / NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES
Paul-Doru Barsanescu, Bogdan Leitoiu, Viorel Goanta, Doru Cantemir, Sergiu Gherasim
Reduction of residual stresses induced by welding in Monel alloy, using parallel heat welding
Abstract: In order to reduce the residual stresses induced by welding, in this paper a technique named as “parallel
heat welding” (PHW) has been used for Monel 400 alloy. PHW is performed by a pair of parallel heating torches,
attached on both sides of central arc welding torch, as a movable heating source supplied with natural gas, during
Keywords: reduction, conventional welding, parallel heat welding, Finite Elements Analysis
Ramadan Rajab, N. Mohamad Nor, K. Ramar
A study of the transient state characteristics of different rodbeds grounding systems
Abstract:This paper investigates transient voltage and current characteristics of earthing systems consisting of two,
three and four-rods, at three different sites based on field measurements and simulations. The measuring and
modeling circuits’ configurations and the characteristics of applied tools are provided. Experimental results have
been obtained using variable peak impulse currents. Some of the several experimental methods and results for the
earthing systems are presented. The results obtained show compliance between theoretical and experimental data.
Results shown are related to cases without soil ionization around the earthing systems. Experimental results were
found to agree favorably with those obtained theoretically using the LTspice simulation program.
Keywords: Earthing system, experimental investigation, impulse characteristics, voltage and currentwave shapes, transient grounding system
Omid Khorasani, Morteza Khakzar Bafruei
A fuzzy AHP approach for evaluating and selecting supplier in pharmaceutical industry
Abstract:Since a certified supplier is a key component and a good resource for a purchaser in reducing such costs,
estimation and selection of the potential suppliers has become an important component of supply chain
management. The supplier selection issue has been founded out as one of the fundamental operators in the supply
chain. Because of importance of medicine in the society, supply chain management of pharmaceutical industry is of
high importance. Hence, in this research, supplier selection in this industry is studied. The case study is choosing
the best supplier of maize starch in a pharmacy company in Iran. At first, the most important criteria for supplier
selection like price, quality, service, organization, and technical issues are identified through the literature review.
Then, criteria appropriate for pharmaceutical industry and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process (FAHP) are used
for selecting the best supplier.
Keywords: Supply Chain; Analytical Hierarchical Process; Fuzzy Logic; Supplier
M.H.M.A. Jahromi, R. Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, E. Givaki, A. Rezapour-Ziba
A simulated annealing approach for a standard one-dimensional cutting stock problem
Abstract: A cutting stock problem (CSP) is one of the main and classical problems in operations research that is
modeled as linear programming (LP). Due to the NP-hard nature of this problem, finding an optimal solution in a
reasonable time is so hard for large-sized problems. In this paper, a simulated annealing (SA) approach is
proposed to solve such a hard problem. To evaluate the performance of this method, a number of randomly
generates problems are solved using the proposed SA approach. The related results are compared with results
obtained by a branch and bound (B&B) method for small and medium-sized problems. By comparison of
computational results, it is found that the proposed SA approach gives the promising results in terms of the
objective function values and CPU times.
Keywords: One-dimensional cutting stock problem; simulated annealing; branch and bound.
Adriano Souza, Francisca Souza, Rui Menezes
Analysis of equilibrium in industrial variables through error correction models
Abstract: This research aimed to evaluate the relationship between variables of the temperature adjustment and the
percentage of heating in the molding oven of the Polyethylene Terephthalate Resin (PTR) used in the manufacture
of the preform of two-liter bottles. It also investigated the direction of causality between these variables in order to
determine how an external shock is transmitted to the system. Vector Error Correction (VEC) methodology was
used to carry out this study. It was possible to identify the variable to be monitored and estimate the minimum time
for the system to reach the stability of the oven temperature.
Keywords: Quality control, vector autoregression, vector error correction model, response-impulse variable, industrial oven temperature.
Rashid Hussain, Abdul Rehman Memon
Towards an efficient segmentation of malignant areas in noisy brain MR (Magnetic Resonant) images
Abstract: The early detection of brain malignant areas plays a vital role in patient survival rate.
However identifying these artifacts is a difficult task in the magnetic resonant images. This process is specially
challenging when it comes to interpret artifacts in brain noisy MR images. Presence of noise in magnetic resonant
images could possibly hamper the detection of various artifacts. Conventional image segmentation methods have
extensively used to find pattern of interest from brain magnetic resonant images. Conventional methods have major
limitations especially when image is corrupted with bursts of random noise.
Keywords: Fuzzy image segmentation, Wavelet thresholding, Non-homogenous noise
Opara F. Kelechi, Ogungbenro A. Oluwaseyi
Design and simulation of an embedded wireless sensor based automatic collision detection/avoidance system and its controls
Abstract: This work is on “the Design and Simulation of Embedded Wireless Sensor Based Automatic Collision
Detection/avoidance System”. Using angle of arrival method (AOA) and time of arrival (TOA) method, an ultrasonic
transmitter is fed with a 40KHz AC signal generated by a microcontroller, such that an ultrasonic sound wave is
generated. The transmitter and the receiver are fixed on the same car such that the sound wave travels outwardly
at a speed of sound, on hitting an obstruction which may be a vehicle or any other object the car must not collide
with, it reflects back towards the source and is then picked back by the ultrasonic receiver.
Keywords: Embedded Wireless Sensor, Collision, Ultrasonic transmitter, Surveillance
Abstract: This paper presents a modified hybrid immune algorithm for the design of intelligent controllers to control
the behavior of nonlinear multivariable dynamical systems in real world problems. The proposed hybrid algorithm is
based on modified multigeneration immune genetic algorithm (MMIGA) combined with fuzzy logic control system.
The modifications of the proposed genetic algorithm include adding of multigeneration loops to the algorithm.
Keywords: Hybrid immune genetic algorithm, fuzzy logic controller, multigeneration modified genetic algorithm, nonlinear multivariable robot system.
Sorin Popa, Dragos Paraschiv, Corneliu Pricope, Valerica Husanu, Daniel Smantana, Valica Popa
Research on titanium coating contact surfaces of bearing elements
Abstract: In this paper we analyze how you have to perform surgery with titanium coating of bearing components,
namely the surfaces in contact after their installation. The role of deposit layer on the titanium surface is to increase
the sustainability of these essential parts of machine tools, thus extending their lifespan and ability to work at higher
speeds and temperatures.
Keywords: coating, bearing, parameter
Gianina Madalina Timofte, Dragos Paraschiv, Chirugu Marius
Diagnosis of workplaces organisation specific to romanian machine manufacturing industry
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to examine how are organized workplaces specific to manufacturing
machines industry from Romania. Characterization of the current situation was made based on the data from a
questionnaire which included questions relevant to the analysis. For the questionnaire, was selected a sample of
thirty companies in Romania, and as a way for the issuance and receipt of questionnaires, was used email.
Keywords: diagnosis, workplace, organisation, questionnaire, improvement.
Mehdi Ebrat, Reza Ghodsi
Risk assessment of construction projects using network based adaptive fuzzy system
Abstract: The main aim of this paper is determining the key risk factors of construction projects in Iran and
developing an intelligent system to assess them. In this research, first the risks involved in construction projects
has been identified and arranged in a systematic hierarchical structure. Questionnaire surveys and literature review
were used for data collection. Next, based on the obtained data a network was based on the adaptive fuzzy system
has been designed for the evaluation of project risks. The results show that the ANFIS models are more promising
in the assessment of construction projects risks. The designed adaptive fuzzy system can learn from experience
and past knowledge, can induce knowledge to future conditions by learning and updating itself and it can be
applied to quantitative and qualitative factors.
Keywords: risk evaluation, construction projects, project planning, fuzzy systems, neural network.
F.K Opara, E. Ovuorie Efemena, Egbujo Felix
Solar solution for mobile charging centers in Nigeria
Abstract: Nigeria is one of the emerging markets for mobile operators who are increasingly looking towards the
developing world for future subscriber growth. This comes with great benefit to individuals, business activities and
access to information. The unreliable grid power in the country hinders the smooth spread of these operators
across the country, it equally affects subscribers to these mobile operators who find it difficult to charge their mobile
phones hence reducing the Average Revenue per User (ARPU) of the mobile operators.
Keywords: risk evaluation, construction projects, project planning, fuzzy systems, neural network.solar, mobile charging, gsm, inverter, battery charger.
Manuel Alberto M. Ferreira, Marina Andrade
Fundaments of Theory of Queues
Abstract: Consider a Service Centre at which arrive units, the customers, requiring service to other units, the
servers, with or without distinction among customers and servers.
Keywords:Theory of Queues,, fundaments
Amjad Abdallah Abdelkarim, Hebah H.O. Nasereddin
Intrusion prevention system
Abstract: New research is going towards find new protection system that offer advanced features that protect
computer systems from any attack. This paper describes how intrusion prevention system work, some features that
intrusion prevention system have, advantages and disadvantages of intrusion prevention system, some different
between intrusion prevention system and intrusion detection system.
Keywords: Intrusion Prevention System, Intrusion Detection System, Firewall, IPS.
M. Yarmohammadi, A. Chizarifard
Practical Points in Implementing Block Clustering with Mixture Models
Abstract: Cluster analysis is a multivariate method which has a long history and absorbed much attention both
theoretically and practically. Based on the data type, distance measures and algorithms, there are a lot of varieties
for clustering. Among these, Block Clustering with Mixture Models (BCMM) is selected to be implemented and
examined practically. In this paper it is tried to collect some points that may arise during implementation of the
Keywords: Clustering, Mixture model, Block mixture model, Latent Class model, EM algorithm, Block CEM algorithm.
Abstract: Anion sensing and testing is a difficult area of Coordination Chemistry. The presence of nitrate anions in
water beyond the threshold limit can be deleterious to both flora and fauna life. Guyana’s waste and domestic
water needs constant monitoring to assess the concentration of toxic anions and cations. High levels of nitrate
anion beyond the threshold limit can cause the “blue baby” syndrome amongst other effects. This paper focuses on
the determination of nitrate anion concentration from three selected areas of coastal Guyana using a
Keywords: Nitrate, threshold limit, flora and fauna, Spectrophotometric method, effluent, 95% confidence level, water treatment plants
Mohammed A. Hussein, Refaat H. Omar, Hatem S. Farghaly
Design, Synthesis, Structure Elucidation And Biochemical Evaluation of Some Novel Anti-inflammatory Schiff's Base Derivatives Bearing Pyrazolo [3, 4-d] Pyrimidine-4-ones
Abstract: The present work involves the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of some new anti-inflammatory
pyrazolo[3, 4-d]pyrimidine derivatives 5a,b. Thionation of compounds 5a,b by action of P2O5 in pyridine yielded 2-
aryloxymethyl-3-amino-1-phenyl-pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine-4-thions 6a,b A number of new Schiff's bases 7-12
were prepared via reaction of N-amino 5a,b with aromatic aldehydes.
Keywords: Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, LD50, anti-inflammatory, SGOT, SGPT and ALP
Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou, Türkan Kutlay Merdol, Peyman Mikaili, Yenar Bektaş
Assessment of the nutritional status of elderly people living at nursing homes in northwest Iran
Abstract: Background: Health promotion encourages people to control and improve their own health. Goals of
increasing the healthy life expantancy, improving the quality of life for all, reducing mortality and morbidity rates,
and increasing life expectancy are emphasized in all regions of the world.
Aims: The primary aim was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and the risk factors among elderly
people living at nursing home in Urmia, Iran. A further aim was to assess the energy and nutrient intake of elderly
nursing home residents. A final objective was to determine physical activity patterns of elderly people living at
Methods: This study was carried out on elderly people, living at all which are 6 nursing homes in Urmia,
Iran. Subjects who were over 65 years were selected to the study. All together 106 persons, 30 males 76 females,
were participated. In this study, data of 106 elderly people were collected with a structured questionnaire that was
divided into four parts: 1) Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) questionnaire, 2) 24-hours food recall and food
frequency questionnaire (FFQ), 3) Physical activity questionnaire.
Results and Conclusion: Among the elderly people living at nursing home, 12.26% were well nourished,
49.06% malnourished and 38.68% at risk of malnutrition.
Keywords: Nursing home, Elderly, Nutrition status, Malnutrition, MNA Test, Urmia, Iran.
Samar A. Ahmed, Sahar Dewedar
Obstetric patient perceptions of written consent forms: A Middle East hospital study
Abstract: This work aims at defining the obstetrics and gynecology patients' awareness of the legal implications of
written consent and their opinion on the function and remit of the consent form.A structured interview protocol was
developed and handed out to One thousand female patients in the obstetrics department of Ain Shams university
hospital and who have just undergone obstetric surgery.
Keywords: A Middle East Hospital Study, obstetric, patient
R. Mehdinavaz, Siamak Najarian, H.S. Emami, S. Shakhesi, S. Khanlari
In vitro evaluation of biodegradable poly (ε-caprolactone)-based blended nanofibrous scaffold for soft tissue engineering
Abstract: Nanofibrous scaffold of synthetic polymers including poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) have shown
considerable potential in tissue regeneration. In this study, a blended nanofiber scaffold was prepared using two
synthetic polymers, poly (ε-caprolactone) and polyglycolic acid (PGA), using the electrospinning method. In order to
confirm the properties of this PCL/PGA blended nanofibrous scaffold, scanning electron microscopy (SEM),
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle measurement, mechanical properties, biodegradation
test and cellular response were performed.
Keywords: Soft tissue engineering, Electrospinning, nanofiber, PCL, PGA
Azza M. Ahmed, Ayat A. Motawie, Sally A.F. El-Sahrigy, N.A. Kantoush, S.M. Abdel-Ghany, U. Abdel-Shakour
Helicobacter pylori infection in Egyptian children with bronchial asthma
Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the helicobacter pylori infection in a group of Egyptian children
with bronchial asthma to determine whether there is a relationship between H.pylori infection and bronchial asthma
or not. This study was conducted on 60 children aged 8-17 years of both sex. They were
taken from out patients' pediatrics clinics of Alzahraa University Hospital and National Research Center. The
studied cases were classified into two groups: group 1, thirty children with bronchial asthma and group 2, thirty
apparently healthy children of matched age and sex as a control group.
Keywords: helicobacter pylori- bronchial asthma- pulmonary function tests.
Abstract: Gingival hyperplasia is secondary to infiltration of the gingival tissue with leukemia cells and is well
described in the literature. Gingival hyperplasia is characterized by progressive enlargement of the interdental
papillae as well as the marginal and attached gingiva. Primary manifestations include odontalgia,ulceration of the
palate, gingivitis, petechiae and ecchymoses of the soft & hard palate, tongue and tonsils are also
observed.leukemic infiltrates in the gingivae are commonly seen in monocyte leukemia.my research based on the
relation between Gingival hyperplasia and leukemia, which one, if we have early medical therapy we may resolve
the gingival hyperplasia.
Keywords: Gingival hyperplasia,Monocyte Leukemia,Gingiva,Soft and Hard palate.
Alaa Ali, Gihan A. Fathy, Hanan A. Fathy, Nagwa Abd EL-Ghaffar
Epidemiology of iron deficiency anaemia: effect on physical growth in primary school children, the importance of hookworms
Abstract: Anemia is estimated to affect almost one-half of school-age Children in the developing countries. The
school years are an
Opportune time to intervene and interventions must be based on sound epidemiologic understanding of
the problem in this age group. We report on the distribution of iron deficiency and anemia across Age, sex,
anthropometric indexes, and parasitic infections in a Representative sample of 400 schoolchildren from
Elminopheia district, Egypt.
Keywords: iron deficiency, physical growth, anaemia, Hookworms, schoolchildren.
Imoru Momodu, Kabiru Suleiman, Shehu Abdullahi, Umar A. Shehu
Haematological values in Nigerian children with steady state homozygous sickle cell disease
Abstract: Sickle cell disease is a group of genetic disorders characterized by the presence of sickle
haemoglobin, anaemia, acute and chronic tissue injury due to blockage of blood flow by abnormally shaped red
cells. This study is aimed at determining the haematological parameters in steady state homozygous sickle cell
disease which can be used to monitor the status.
Keywords:Haematological values, Nigerian children, steady state, homozygous sickle cell disease.
Mohammad Aljaradin, Kenneth M. Persson, Hossam Ibrahim Al-Itawi
Public awareness and willingness for recycle in Jordan
Abstract: Jordan has seen a large increase in population during the past five decades as a result of population
growth and forced migrations, and also, accompanied with this increase, a cultural and economical development
that has improved the standard of living and changing consumer habits in the community, resulting in a clear
increase in the volume of waste. These changes urges the need for finding proper ways of making the living
conditions for the people of Jordan more sustainable, recycling has been adopted as an important way to reduce
waste and ease the use of landfills in many courtiers of the world.
Keywords: Jordan; recycling; awareness; willingness, economic and environmental benefits.
S.P. Kosta, Y.P. Kosta, A. Gaur, Y.M. Dube, J.P. Chuadhari, J. Patoliya, S. Kosta, P. Panchal, P. Vaghela, K. Patel, B. Patel, R. Bhatt, V. Patel
New vistas of electronics towards biological (biomass) sciences
Abstract: Gift of God - the green biomass can be utilized as material of electrical circuit components (RCL, Diode,
Transistor).The green plant/tree sustain life due to (i) sap sucked by their roots embedded in the wet soil and (ii)
the photo synthesized liquid food processed by green biomass. Both sap and liquid food contain mainly nano size
charged particles (ions).Coupling a portion of green leaf to varying EMF one can generate-transmit-receive
e.m.waves/pulses (in and around its surroundings) by creating electronic circuits. These circuits may find useful
applications in biomass (agricultural crop, garden-plants etc.) health monitoring. The paper presents realization of
some biomass logic (OR, AND, NAND, NOR gates) and analog circuits including mem-resistor behavior.
Keywords: Biomass, Gift of God, EMF, nano
A.M. Shaheen, Fatma A. Rizk, Faten S. Abdel-Aal, Hoda A.M. Habib
Production of safe and economic onion bulbs
Abstract: Two field experiments were carried out during two successive seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 at the
experimental station of National Research Centre in Nobaria (Behera Governorate) to economic evaluate the
organic with inorganic of onion production under Egyptian condition. Four different organic manures used, i.e. the
recycling of agricultural wastes of bagases, corn stalk, water hyacinth, and MSW plus chemical fertilizer, all fertilizer
treatments applied at rate of 120 N units/fed., the important obtained results are as follows:
1. Using chemical fertilizer for growing onion plant gained the vigor growth, the heaviest tonnage yield,
followed in descending order by the applying bagases as organic manure. But the highest exportable bulbs yield
was associated with that plants which received bagases.
Keywords: Onion, bagases, Corn stalks, Water hyacinth, MSW compost
Nevien A. Abou Sereih, Hassan Abdel-Latif A. Mohamed, Abdel Hamid A. Haggran, Rasha Gomma Said Salim
Genetic and biochemical characterization of some food-borne properties of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae modified trains
Abstract: Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was used to examine the changes in the ability to tolerate bile salts,
bioaccumulation of selenium, zinc, following EMS as a chemical mutagenic agent treatment. Induction of mutation
in S. cerevisiae was carried out by ( 1.17 g/ml ) to take 0.250, 0.500 and 1000 ul/ m1 l. Results revealed that the
survival percentagea was decreased by increasing the doses of EMS were as the survival percentage 10.4 % at
exposure dose 1000 ul /ml 1. Five mutants were isolated as auxotroph and their nutritional requirement was
Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, EMS, Mutation, Food-Borne properties, Bile salt, bioaccumulation, selenium, zinc and sporulation
The effects of fish growing pollution in water
Abstract: It is well known that water pollution is an issue beginning to receive more attention recently. Discharging into
the rivers, discharging of sewage of fish growing fields are major sources of pollution. But no considerable step has
been taken for fish growing fields in the county and the sewage water pouring into rivers. Since rivers constitute
main sources of fresh water used in agriculture, drinking, and industrial applications, everything that causes the
water pollution can be considered as an important issue to be studied.
Keywords: pollution, river, fish growing, sewage
Hasan Rahimi Oskuei, Jamshid Ghiasi Ghaleh-kandi, Yahya Ebrahimnejad, Kayvan Hatefinejad, Alireza Lotfi
Effects of in ovo Leptin Administration on body weight and blood glucose concentration of Newly-hatched Chicks
Abstract: With attention to reported positive effects of in ovo leptin administration on hatching results of quail, aim of
this study was to investigation of in ovo leptin administration on body weight (BW) and blood glucose concentration
(BG) of hatched broiler chickens. 640 fertilized eggs with similar weight were divided into 5 groups; group T1 as
control (without injection), group T2 (in ovo injected with basal solution), group T3 (in ovo injected with 0.5 μg/egg
leptin), group T4 (in ovo injected with 1 μg/egg leptin) and group T5 (in ovo injected with 1.5 μg/egg leptin). In ovo
injection has been done on day 7 of embryonic life, for every injected group.
Keywords: Leptin, in ovo injection, Blood glucose, body weight, Chicken
Said F. Abd-Elkader, Mohamed Fath EL-Bab, Mohamed Abdou Abd EL-Naeeim
The impact of elevated oxidative stress on the incident physiological and biochemical changes in long distance runners
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of elevated oxidative stress resulting from performing
competitions on some physiological variables, the lactic acid concentration, the free oxygen radicals in blood;
malondialdehyde (MDA), and thiobarbituric acid-malondialdehyde (TBA-MDA), and the body composition in the
5000 meter runners.
Keywords: Endurance exercise; Antioxidant status; Oxidative stress biomarkers
Soran Shangapour, Seidawan Hosseini, Hashem Hashem Nejad
A design pattern of virtual architecture for social interaction in Iran. Case study: Iranian architecture society
Abstract: Along with the advent of recent communicative technologies, new cyber social networks have been
emerged as the most influential line of interaction. We seek a special design pattern which makes these networks
proper to offer users the experience of being submerged in 3D virtual spaces to create an immense liberal
Keywords: virtual architecture, participation, design pattern, cultural and social communication, Iranian society, interaction
M.R. Pourjafar, A. Pourjafar, M. Shahinrad
Evolution of towers and Minaret of Islamic architecture from Qabus tower to Malaysian Petronas twin towers (KLCC)
Abstract: Islamic architecture (that many people believe it is Muslims’ architecture) has been developed very well
within a vast geographical world of Islam. Studying the evolution of valuable structure, built during 1000 years ago
in various part of the Islamic world indicates that there is a valuable potential in traditional Islamic architecture to be
considered in developing contemporary architecture.
Keywords: Architecture, Aliabad Tomb, Qabus Tower, Jam minaret, Petronas Twin Towers
Saeid Yasinian, Zahra Al-Sadat Hosseini, Parisa Yazdan panah Abdolmaleki, Seyedeh Hoda Rastgouy Haghi
History of the typical Persian mills on the Iranian plateau
Abstract: The need for preserving historical constructions is not only a cultural requirement, but also an economical
and developmental demand. In addition to their historical interest, cultural heritage buildings are valuable because
they contribute significantly to the economy by providing key attractions at a time when tourism and leisure are
major industries. Herein, the great Iranian tradition is as yet little known in the West and there is much to be learnt
both from it and the building techniques which are integral with it. Meanwhile, not only is the Iranian vernacular
building tradition itself still alive, but there is much to be gained from the knowledge of a highly developed
technology which makes such ingenious use of natural resources without the consumption of additional power.
Keywords: Iran, Vernacular Architecture, Natural Resources, Water-Mills
Yelda Aydın Türk, Zeynep Yılmaz Bayram, Ayşe Sağsöz
Evaluating the developmental process of the zoning regulatıons in Turkey in terms of urban design
Abstract: In order to improve the urban living quality and to have liveable cities with identity, an integration of urban
design and planning from the upper scale planning system to the designs for application is important. It has been
observed that very successful examples have been produced in the planning and design process, which is seen as
an integrated mechanism in many European countries, mainly in the UK. In this mechanism, design may partake in
planning at any stage and at any scale and is considered to be an inseparable part of planning.
Keywords: Urban Design, Urban Planning, Zoning Regulations, Turkey
FDI Between Theoretical Approach And Applied (case of Jordan)
Abstract: In the recent decades, foreign direct investment (FDI) has become an important driving force in the
economic world. This development has required some modifications in the standard theories of international trade,
which usually assume that commodities are mobile between countries, while factors of production are not, this
allowed the researcher to examine the economic consequences of (FDI) and it is effect in Jordan economics. This
research seeks to provide an integrated analysis of two inter linked theoretical areas of (FDI) and Jordan trade to
explain the links between them,. The most interesting and relevant aspects of (FDI) is the inter link ages economic,
also we decided to focus on action of trade and (FDI) including the impact of (FDI) on trade home of host country
(Jordan), this tries to examine the impacts of (FDI) in Jordan economy.
Keywords: Investments, FDI foreign direct investments, developments, Jordan, economic models, (TNCs), FPI (foreign portfolios)
S. Jabbarzadeh Kangarluei, A. Bayazidi, S.H. Tadeiyon, B. Soleimani
Corporate Governance Mechanisms and Conservatism: The Evidence from Iran
Abstract: This research is intended to study the relationship between Corporate Governance Mechanisms and
Conservatism in companies which have accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange. In this paper, Conservatism is the
dependent variable that for the measuring of it, the Givoly and Hayn (2000) model is used. Corporate Governance
Mechanisms such as independent outside directors on the board (OBD), percentage of institutional ownership
(PIO), ownership centralization (OC), free float (FF) and auditor type (AT) are also considered as the independent
variables. In this study, the numbers of 130 firm-year observations were investigated during the period 2003-2009.
Keywords: Corporate Governance Mechanisms, Conservatism, Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE)
Changiz Valmohammadi, Mandana Khodapanahi
The impact of ISO 9001:2000 implementation on employees’ job satisfaction: A case study
Abstract: This paper seeks to examine employees’ perceptions of ISO 9001 practices and its impact on job
satisfaction within a food company located in north of Iran. Despite extensive research on ISO 9001 practices,
none examines this scope of investigative study. Therefore, the proposed model was developed with the intention
of examining this relationship. The paper proposes a main hypothesis and 4 sub-hypotheses and tests on the
relationship between ISO9001:2000 practices and job satisfaction.
Keywords: Food industry, Iran, multiple regression analysis, quality management
Manuel Coelho, José António Filipe, Manuel Alberto M. Ferreira
Environmental sustainability as a dimension of corporate social responsibility: The case of CGD – Caixa Geral Depósitos / Portugal
Abstract: According to the 2001 European Commission Green Paper, Social Responsibility conceptualization is
associated with the idea of companies deciding, in a voluntary base, to contribute for a fair society and a cleaner
The tradition of social intervention in Portugal remounts to the century XV and the foundation of the Mercies.
However, environmental goals were never proposed as fundamental objectives in the positioning of
corporate social responsibility, given the delay of the industrial development.
Keywords: Social Responsibility, Sustainable Development, Environmental Sustainability, Finance sector, CGD/Portugal
Ali Shadrokh, Hassan Pazira
Estimation of parameters of the exponentiated gamma distribution in the presence of outlier
Abstract: This paper deals with the estimation of parameters of the Exponentiated Gamma (EG) distribution with
presence of one outlier. The maximum likelihood and moment of the estimators are derived. These estimators are
compared empirically using Monte Carlo simulation when all the parameters are unknown. There bias and MSE
are investigated with help of numerical technique.
Keywords:Exponentiated Gamma distribution, Maximum Likelihood Estimator, Moment Estimator, Outlier, Monte-Carlo simulation.
Asif Naveed Ranjha, Muhammad Imran Yousuf, Muhammad Sarwar
An empirical study of socio-political aspects of women councilors under Pakistan local government
Abstract: The local government system provided a chance of greater women representation in political matters of
Pakistan. After selection as women councillors, they had to face various problems. This research paper explores
the social and political status and problems of such newly elected councilors and to examine socio-political
background of elected women, provision of training, attitudes of community, attitude of political colleagues and
suggestions for improvement and sustainability of women participation in local government.
Keywords: Socio-political, Political participation, Women councilors, Local government
Malik Amer Atta, Asif Jamil, Muhammad Ayaz, Jalil-ur-Rehamn Baloch
Comparative study of in-service promoted and directly selected subject specialists regarding classroom management at higher secondary school level
Abstract: Prime objective of the study was to compare classroom management skill of promoted in-service and
directly selected subject specialists of higher secondary schools. Subject specialists appointed by the provincial
public service commission were referred as selected subject specialists. Promoted subject specialists were the
secondary school teachers (SST) working in BPS-16 and promoted as subject specialists after acquiring master
degree in education and M.A/MSc. Sixteen higher secondary schools were randomly selected from four districts
including Dera Ismail Khan, Lakki Marwat, Bannu and Peshawar of Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa, Pakistan.
Keywords: classroom management, higher secondary schools, secondary school teachers
Muhammad Ajmal, Hafiz M. Hamidullah, Fazalur Rahman, Basharat Ali Khan
Course book evaluation through instructional design parameters in the system of distance education
Abstract: The focus of the paper was to report the findings of the study examining course book design at the Allama
Iqbal Open University, Pakistan. It was an evaluation study conducted through a questionnaire. The data collected
from 7 tutors and fifty students enrolled in the course literacy and mass education in semester spring 2009. The
tutors and students found book according to their needs. However, the study recommended revising the course
book according to the emerging trends of instructional design.
Keywords: Course book evaluation; instructional design, distance education
Nabila Kausar, Almas Kiani
An empirical study of prevalent ratio of drug addiction among the students at higher secondary level
Abstract: Drug abuse is hazardous and known to be prevalent among young adults, warranting efforts to increase
awareness about harmful effects and to change attitudes. This study was conducted to assess the prevalent drug
addiction activities at higher secondary level in district Islamabad, Pakistan, a predominantly Muslim country. This
study to develop a check list of drugs using by students at higher secondary level, second is to find out the different
stimuli and factors causing drug addiction, third is to see the role of teachers and heads in controlling the trends of
drug addiction, fourth is to analyze the present curricula in the context of drug education.
Keywords: empirical study, drug addiction, prevalent ratio, higher secondary, students
Safdar Rehman Ghazi, Saqib Shahzad, Gulap Shahzada, Uzma Syeda Gillani
Job satisfaction of head teachers for the selected twenty dimensions of job
Abstract: The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the study was to document facet-specific levels of job
satisfaction of the head teachers as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Secondly, the
influence of four selected demographic characteristics on twenty facets of job satisfaction was investigated. The
mean scores for the 20 dimensions of job were ranged from “Slightly Satisfied” to “Very Satisfied”. Compensation,
Working Conditions, Social Status, and School System Policies and Practices ranked the lowest in the hierarchy
respectively, which indicates that the head teachers found to be “Slightly Satisfied” with these dimensions of job.
Results based on this study provide a sufficient ground to frame the recommendations for Compensation, Working
conditions, Social Status, and School System Policies and Practices.
Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Job Dimensions, Job Facets, Teacher Satisfaction, Head Teacher, Satisfaction
Shahinshah Babar Khan, Saeed-ul-Hasan Chishti
Learners’ errors: supporting learners for participating in mathematics’ classroom
Abstract: In learning a new concept, students do many types of errors. Some errors are due to lack of basic
knowledge and some are due understanding of a particular subject. Mathematics holds special place among
different subjects at school level. Many hopes and desires are attached with learning of mathematics. It is expected
that learning of mathematics will affect the performance in other subjects. In addition, mathematics’ understanding,
furnished life with ease and improve the cognitive domains which ultimately help in different practical situations.
Keywords: learners’ errors, classroom
Masood Sarwar Awan, Nouman Malik, Haroon Sarwar, Muhammad Waqas
Impact of education on poverty reduction
Abstract: Poverty is a stumbling block in the way of achieving economic development. Cognizant of the essence of
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and ‘Education for All’ program, education is promulgated as the primary
weapon against poverty prevalence. Hence it is important to seek out the effect of different levels of education
upon poverty in Pakistan. This study evaluates the effect of different levels of education, experience and gender of
the employed individuals (employers, self-employed, wage earners and unpaid family workers) as the determinants
Keywords: Poverty, Education, Pakistan
Zulfiqar Ali Cheema, Sheikh Tariq Mahmood, Azhar Mahmood, Makhdoom Ali Shah
Conceptual awareness of research scholars about plagiarism at higher education level: intellectual property right and patent
Abstract: Due to unawareness about intellectual property laws, researchers very often became a victim of plagiarism.
Research has proved that plagiarism is a common factor among the students and it is due to unawareness of
plagiarism. Sometimes it is intentionally and sometimes it unintentionally. Purpose of the present study was to find
out the conceptual awareness of research students about plagiarism through different aspects. For this purpose a
descriptive study was conducted.
Keywords: plagiarism, Intellectual Property Rights, Conceptual Awareness, Higher Education, Research scholars
Fatemeh Mosazadeh-Sayadmahaleh, Yusef Esmaeilzadeh-Estakhrbijar, Ghassem Habibi Bibalani
Simile and Metaphor of Daffodil (Narcissus spp.) in poems by Hafez
Abstract: Simile and Metaphor Application of Daffodil in poems by Hafez is being studied in this paper. Narcissus is
the botanic name for a genus of mainly hardy, mostly spring-flowering, bulbs in the Amaryllis family native to
Europe, North Africa, and Asia. There are also several Narcissus species that bloom in the autumn, Daffodil is a
common English name of this plant. Khwaja Samsu d-Din Muḥammad Hafez-e Sirazi, known by his pen name
Hafez (1315–1390) was a Persian lyric poet. Daffodil has been used at 44 poetry lines that at 32 lines used this
plant in Metaphor and at 5 lines used in Simile. Daffodil has been used for Metaphor for eye (in 11 lines), Eye
Femme (in 5 lines), Drunken Eyes (in 12 lines) and Beautiful eyes (in 4 lines). Daffodil has been used for Simile for
eye (in 3 lines), eye and lamp (in one line) and cup (in one line).
Keywords: Daffodil, Narcissus, Simile, Metaphor, Hafez
Adjective modification of the head noun in English and Persian Languages
Abstract: Some modifiers in a complex nouns phrase give information about the headword. These modifiers are
divided into two parts: premodifiers and postmodifiers .Among them there are adjectives that can premodifiers or
post modify the head noun. Descriptive adjectives that premodify the head noun are of two kinds: coordinated
ordered adjectives and subordinated ones. This paper investigates the descriptive adjectives that premodify the
head noun in a complex noun phrase in English and Persian languages. These adjectives mostly post modify the
head noun in Persian complex noun phrases. A contrastive study shows that unlike some shared points in two
languages, there are some controversies. These differences cause some problems for all those working and
studying in two languages as foreign or second languages.
Keywords: English language-Persian language-Coordinated ordering-subordinated ordering-complex noun phrases-Adjective modification.
3rd PART. / APPLIED AND NATURAL SCIENCES
V.H. Hasanov, S.Z. Mammadova, R.H. Aslanova, E.R. Nuriyev
Soil-ecological characteristics and diagnostic of mountain-forest dark brown soil and alluvial-meadow soils in the Goygol National park, Azerbaijan
Abstract: The article is devoted to learn diagnostics and morphostructure of mountain-forest brown soils and alluvialmeadow
soils spread in the Göygöl National Park which is first nature reserve (in 1925 year) of the Azerbaijan
Republic. Providing of accumulative fertility layer of earth with humus, exceeding of fulvoacids in fraction content of
humus from humin acids, element content of humin acids were defined. Common chemical content of soil and
especially comparison of SiO2:R2O3 (4,0-4,3) show the characteristics of subtropical soil production process and
internal soil erosion.
Keywords: humin, fulvo, decolsinat
H. Shadkami, Gh. Habibi Bibalani
Over ground biomass characterics of genera single species Iran (Cnicus Benedictus) in northwest Iran (till area of shabestar)
Abstract: Changing rangelands to agricultural lands and irregular grazing mad some problems such as decreasing plant
variety, decreasing under-over ground plant biomass at Till village and because of this, soil stability decreased by
vegetal Species. In this research we have studied part of biologic characterize of genera single Species such as
stem height, over ground of plant biomass in Till pasture from Shabestar township. Results of this showed that in
studying area stem height Cnicus Benedictus was unsteady from 4 - 29mm, that in average it is about 11.41mm,
respectively, the max, min and average over ground of plant biomass in studying area 5.29, 0.70, .0.82 gr/m2.
Keywords: Cnicus Benedictus, Genera single Species, over ground biomass
Abstract: UV treatments of different time variables to Trichoderma koningii Oudem., antagonistic against
carbendazim sensitive and resistant Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid causing charcoal rot of sweet potato
yielded five T. koningii mutants. Among these five mutants UV Trichoderma koningii-2 showed maximum
antagonistic activity against the charcoal rot pathogen when tested by dual culture technique.
Keywords: carbendazim, dual culture, Macrophomina phaseolina, mutants, Trichoderma koningii, UV light
Ghassem Habibi Bibalani
Investigation on Persian Orange root growth in first tree years
Abstract: Vegetation Roots is been used for slope stability and Cause stability force versus failure that improve
slope instability. For this purpose, whatever the root growth rate is much more for trees in Initial three-year growth
can Cause Faster soil stability improvement. This study looked at North Iran for determination root biomass
growing in Initial three-year growth seedling of Orange. Data available for 1-, 2- and 3-year-old Persian Orange
seedlings indicate that rate of seedling root biomass growth was about 0.09, 0.62 and 2.55 gr for 1, 2 and 3-
Keywords: Persian Orange, root growth, Iran, Vegetation Roots
Ghassem Habibi Bibalani
Investigation on Prunus avium root growth in first tree years
Abstract: Vegetation Roots is been used for slope stability and Cause stability force versus failure that improve
slope instability. For this purpose, whatever the root growth rate is much more for trees in Initial three-year growth
can Cause Faster soil stability improvement. This study looked at North Iran for determination root biomass
growing in Initial three-year growth seedling of Prunus avium. Data available for 1-, 2- and 3-year-old Prunus avium
seedlings indicate that rate of seedling root biomass growth was about 1, 1.57 and 3.5 gr for 1, 2 and 3- year-old,
Keywords: Prunus avium, root growth, Iran, Vegetation Roots
S.A. Ibrahim, Hanan S. Siam, M.A. Rashad, Sh.Sh. Holah, S.T. Abou Zeid
Influence of soil moisture regimes on some nutrients concentration in soil solution collected from different soils through the growth period of rice plants
Abstract: Pot experiment was performed in the greenhouse of the National Research centre, Cairo, Egypt, to study
the effect of soil moisture regimes,M1, M2 and M3 (irrigated every 4, 6 and 8 days respectively) on some nutrients
concentration in soil solutions collected from soils differ in their texture and fertility levels, through the growth period
of rice plants. Each pot received a basic dressing of 11.5 KgN as urea (46% N), 3.75 Kg P2O5 as superphosphate
(15.5% P2O5) and 13 kg K2O as potassium sulphate (48% K2O).
Keywords: Submerged, moisture regimes, soil texture, nutrients concentration, phosphorus, potassium, iron, manganese fertility level
Mona A. M. Soliman, Iman Kh. Abbas, Salah El-Khatieb
Statistical evaluation of irrigation optimization on barley crop yield and water use efficiency
Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted in 2008/09 and 2009/10 growing seasons at Mahmoud Yassin
Farm in Cairo-Alexandria Desert Road, Egypt. The aim of the experiment was to determine the response of the
yield of three barley hulled cultivars (Giza 123, Giza 124 and Giza 125) to two irrigation amounts (high amount
equivalent to 2250 m3/fed and low amount equivalent to 1500 m3/fed) and their water use efficiency.
Keywords: Barley cultivars, irrigation optimization, water use efficiency, sprinkler irrigation, correlation coefficients and prediction equations.
Edijatno, Nadjadji Anwar, Very Dermawan
Physical hydraulic model investigation of flow and energy dissipation on smooth and stepped spillway with steep slope
Abstract: A physical hydraulic model investigation was conducted to evaluate the performance of Dawuan weir at
Situbondo-East Java, that is a standard spillway with 72° slope (smooth spillway), compare with stepped spillway
design. The stepped spillway has 72° slope with 32 steps that it cut into the surface of spillway from the crest to the
toe. This paper presents the results of the experimental studies on spillway of 72° and to find out the hydraulic jump
conditions at smooth spillway and stepped spillway with 32 steps. Hydraulic model of smooth and stepped spillway
implemented at laboratory with 100 cm high, 30 cm wide, and 5 variations of flow rates. It was found that for the
stepped spillway with 32 steps could reduce the length of hydraulic jump about 47.61%. The percentage of energy
loss of stepped spillway was approximately 92.59%.
Keywords: Smooth Spillway, Stepped Spillway, Hydraulic Jump
Nadjadji Anwar, Edijatno, Very Dermawan
Characteristics of the hydraulic jump on serial drops
Abstract: A hydraulic model investigation is conducted to evaluate the performance of drop structure with serial
drops. The serial drops had 45° slope that would compare with single drop structure. This paper presents the
results of the experimental studies on serial drops structure of 45° and to find out the hydraulic jump conditions at
serial drops structure with 4 and 2 drops. Hydraulic model of drop structure conducted at laboratory with 100 cm
high, 30 cm wide, and 5 variations of flow rates. The number of drops significantly increases the flow depth at
downstream of serial drops, y2. The 2 serial drops increase y2 approximately 18.72% and 4 serial drops increase y2
Keywords: Hydraulic Jump, Drop Structure
A.R. Karimi, N. Mehrdadi, S.J. Hashemian, Gh.R. Nabi-Bidhendi, R. Tavakkoli-Moghaddam
Using of the fuzzy topsis and fuzzy ahp methods for wastewater treatment process selection
Abstract: Selection of the wastewater treatment process is a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem. The
conventional methods for process selection are inadequate for dealing with the imprecise or vague nature of linguistic
assessment. To overcome this difficulty, fuzzy MCDM methods are proposed. The aim of this study is to use the fuzzy
order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methods, as wellknown
tools in MCDM, for selection of the treatment process.
Keywords: Fuzzy TOPSIS; Fuzzy AHP; MCDM; Anaerobic wastewater treatment process; Industrial estates.
Abstract: Rapidly expanding urban population alongside of industrial expansion has given rise to consumption and
consequently production of dry waste which caused severe health and environmental complications, specifically
within capital cities that in default of proper management would lead to major crises in human societies. With
regard to the feasibility of waste recycling, a research has been done on the recycling process in Caspian coastal
provinces. Recently, the issue of waste disposal in north of Iran has turned into an environmental predicament in
addition to destruction and erosion of myriads of the northern forest.
Keywords: Compost, Urban Waste, Recycling, North of Iran
Mohammad Rashed Mohajery nav, Orang Esteghamat
Studying the effect of energy and protein levels on growth and economic yield of male Talesh calves
Abstract: Taleshi cattle, is one of the Iranian's native breeds and raising in the western-north of Gilan state. There is
about 800000 heeds of native cattle in this region and about 98% of them is Taleshi Cattle. Those male calves
have a good performance, thus, their rearing and fattening had an important role in rural's economics.
Keywords: Fattening, energy and protein
Derya Elmali Şen, Reyhan Midilli Sari, Süleyman Özgen, Nimet Candaş Kahya, Ayşe Sağsöz
The settlements that new black sea coastal road could not damage the identity: Tirebolu, Konakönü, Sarayköy/in Turkey
Abstract: Tirebolu, Konakönü and Sarayköy are the settlements that keep their coast and historical texture and
reflect the identity of East Blacksea by to be passed the road from South. In this context Tirebolu with its castle,
monuments, traditional houses and beaches, Konakönü and Sarayköy with their traditional houses and natural
beaches become more important in the region. But it is not enough to be rescued from the coastal damage of KSY
to provide the sustainability of urban and natural identities of these settlements. Authorities should be take
measures to protect and keep alive the areas having these features. Otherwise it is inevitable that the settlements
to become old and out of use and dissappear in time.
Keywords: Tirebolu, Konakönü, Sarayköy, Turkey, Blacksea
Abstract: The end of twentieth century witnessed the change of governmental role in infrastructure projects; it
changed its role to supervisor on infrastructure projects implemented by private sector through different
methodologies of privatization in infrastructure projects. Infrastructure projects all over the world faced a lot of
problems that led to increase of private sector participation in such projects.
Keywords: BOT Projects, Egypt, Infrastructure Projects, Development Countries, Privatized airport, Marsa Alam Airport, Al Alamein Airport.
Reyhan Midili Sari, Derya Elmali Şen, Selda Al, Nimet Candaş Kahya, Ayşe Sağsöz
The effects of traditions, customs and beliefs on architectural design: the example of Turkey
Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine how traditions, customs and beliefs have affected the formation of
the Turkish house. With this purpose in mind, the units in the traditional Turkish house which were affected were
determined as the mass structure and courtyard, harem-selamlik (women’s quarters-men’s quarters), room and
sofa, and evaluations were made in terms of these units. The sample houses that were used in our evaluations
were selected in such a way as to represent the whole country. In the second part of the study, we investigated
these effects on today’s houses. When we look at today’s houses we can say that they didn’t reflect in the present
day the success of the houses in the past.
Keywords: human factors, environmental impact, user behaviour, social design, tradition
Tohid Hatami Khanghahi, Parisa Yazdan panah Abdolmaleki
An overview of the Iranian vernacular architecture with particular reference to the air traps
Abstract: As scientists we tend to view technology as a scientific system but in fact the success of a particular
technology at a particular time may rest less on its efficient performance and more on its 'social' relevance and
impact. We now need to identify sustainable design investments for a very uncertain future of expanding
populations, scarcer resources and climate change.
Keywords: Vernacular Architecture, Air Traps, Iran, Natural Ventilation, Sustainable Solutions.
Farah Habib, Mohsen Sartipipour, Seyed Amirhossein Garakani, Fatemeh Rahimbakhsh
Investigating the application of DSS method for architects in Iranian rural areas (A case tested in Baba-Pashman village, Lorestan province)
Abstract: Numerous participatory methods and tools have emphasized on development of rural areas but few have
considered aspects of settlement in these regions. This study explores a number of such tools designed for Iranian
experts working in the field of rural housing. The author first introduces a number of elements related to the
effective participation of local inhabitants and then describes the tools themselves.
Keywords: DSS Method, Architects, Rural Areas, Iran, Baba-Pashman Village
Ali Shadrokh, Asghar Abdolrazaghi
Estimation of the parameters of the truncated Pareto distribution
Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to find the maximum likelihood estimators and the maximum of conditional
likelihood for all the parameters of the truncated Pareto distribution and also Bayes estimation of shape parameter
of this distribution for the impure prior density function under different loss functions. Also, the beg estimator is
introduced. At the end, with the help of simulation, these obtained estimators will be compared.
Keywords: maximum likelihood, maximum of conditional likelihood, Truncated Pareto distribution, Bayes estimation, impure, loss functions, Beg estimator, simulation.
H. Mostafaei, L. Sakhabakhsh
Modeling and Forecasting of OPEC Oil Prices with ARFIMA Model
Abstract: The classical approach to modeling economic series is to apply the Box-Jenkins approach of ARMA or
ARIMA depending on whether the series is stationary or non-stationary. If such series exhibits long memory
property, forecasts values based on ARIMA model may not be reliable. In this paper, we study the long-term
memory of OPEC oil prices using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, establish ARFIMA model for it. The
results indicate that the best model is ARFIMA (2,0.34,3) which is used to predict the oil prices in OPEC.
Keywords: Long memory; ARFIMA; detrended fluctuation analysis
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to develop the theoretical framework for the research and study of global
information and communication technology (ICT) programmes both as an emic as well as etic phenomenon. These
programmes project a distinctive conceptualization of how ICT is implicated in the blurring and re-shaping of the
boundaries of the state, the establishment of new local and global institutional regimes, and in offering new
modalities of governance. Based on relevant information systems, public administration and institutional economics
research, the paper argues that a multidisciplinary understanding for the theoretical study of such programmes is
needed in order to explore them as a mean of technology transfer and to better understand systems of innovation
in the developing world for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.
Keywords: information and communication technology, Millennium Development Goals, global ICT programmes
A. Selvarasu, José António Filipe, C. Kathiravan, Manuel Alberto M. Ferreira, Maria I. C. Pedro
A Research on Sustainable Competitive Positional Advantage of English Dailies in Tamilnadu (India)
Abstract: The aim of this study is to identify and to describe the sustainable competitive positional advantage of
various English Dailies in Tamilnadu (India) in general. Cost leaderships (price) and the differentiations based on
demographics, psychographics, reading activity, opinion and interest are particularly considered. In order to reach
this scope a theory of sustainable competitive positional advantage is proposed, in the context of print media in
Keywords: Sustainable Competitive Positional Advantage, Cost Leadership, Differentiation, Strategies, Motivators, Inhibitors.
Abstract: This paper is an exploratory study on the influence of demographic factors of gender, age and educational
level on consumer ethical beliefs. The result reveals that female consumers are more ethical in consumer ethics
dimension of benefiting from questionable activities. As for age group, older consumers are more ethical in
benefiting from questionable activities and no harm/ no foul dimensions. Those who are in the 30-44 age group is
more likely to support recycling / doing good initiatives. In the case of educational level, consumers who possess
undergraduate or postgraduate degrees are more ethical than those having only secondary education in three of
the four consumer ethics dimension. The implications and limitations of the study were subsequently discussed.
Keywords: Consumer ethics, gender, age, education, Malaysian consumers.
Zeyad M. Alfawaer, Mohammad Awni, Saleem Al-Zoubi
Mobile e-ticketing reservation system for Amman international stadium in Jordan
Abstract: This research introduces a Mobile E-Ticketing system for Amman International Stadium in Jordan to
provide the crowed with an E-ticket for watching matches without losing time and effort. Fans usually buy the
tickets manually from shops or out the gats of the stadium, this process tiresome because the huge number of the
crowd, as it would take long time to wait in lines, choose the match time and seat, and the most disappointing is
reaching the stadium and cannot get tickets.
Keywords: E-ticket, mobile booking, m-commerce, prototype, reservation, M-Ticketing.
H.R. Vakili Fard , H. Nikoomaram, S. Jabbarzadeh kangarluei, A. Bayazidi
The investigation of the relationship between earnings management and conservatism in accounting system of Iran
Abstract: This research aims to study the relationship between earnings management and conservatism in
Accounting System of Iran. For measuring of Conservatism (CSVM) is used Givoly and Hayn (2000) model and to
calculate of earnings management is applied jones model (1991). In this research, 490 year-firms in during 2003-
2009 have been investigated.
Keywords: Earnings management (EM), Total accruals (TACC), Discretionary accruals (DAC), Nondiscretionary accruals (NDACC), Conservatism (CSVM) and Accounting system of Iran.
Karanikolas Nikolaos, Vagiona Dimitra, Xifilidou Agapi
Real estate values and environment: A case study on the effect of the environment on residential real estate values
Abstract: This paper surveys the main issues in literature on real estate market and environment. The real estate
business is one of the basic economic sectors in the world. However, it is world-wide accepted that the real estate
market is affected and formed not only by economic and productive factors, but, also, by various qualitative
characteristics of the natural and human environment, in which each real estate activity is performed.
Keywords: Real estate market values, natural and social environment, natural disasters
Maria I.C. Pedro, José António Filipe, Manuel Alberto M. Ferreira
Resource theory and the franchising internationalization intention
Abstract: Franchising is a concept that has grown in importance both economically and as a research topic. It has
been considered one of the most used topics by retail companies to internationalize. The theory based on
resources explains the internationalization of franchising systems as a function of resources owned by the
company (resources they have before beginning the process of internationalization), needed jointly with the factor
“experience”, and considered enough to enable companies to deal with in the international market. According to the
resource theory it is necessary to highlight the development of internal resources before franchisor starts the
Keywords: Franchising, Agency resource, Internationalization, Organizational theory, Entrepreneurship
An empirical research on the relation between IT and TQM Practices
Abstract: This paper is to develop a framework to be used on how information technology (IT) can support total
quality management practices in the Iranian manufacturing organizations. Based on eng. et al. research, in order to
measure the extent to which IT supports TQM practices, the construct” TQM supported by information technology”
Keywords: Total quality management, Information technology, Iranian national Productivity and Excellence Award, Iran
Abstract: The present work constitutes an analysis of environmental protests in Turkey. Based on 18 months of
fieldwork my research suggests that globalisation, through economic liberalisation and media globalisation has
affected Turkish activism. Turkish environmental groups are globally informed organisations - through the changes
in information technology, world order and the challenge to national sovereignty (Williams 2003) - and are
themselves part of, what Hannerz (1996) calls, ‘global interconnectedness’.
Keywords: Turkey, Environmental Protests, Transnationalism, ASG, Bergama protest, The İlisu Dam Case, The Akkuyu Resistance
Main approaches to the definition of ethnic conflict
Abstract: The article touches the major theoretical approaches in definition of the ethnic conflict in political sciences,
providing theories of American, European, Russian and Kazakhstani experts. It briefly observes the first theses and
the development of ethnic conflict theory, emphasizing on the differences between Soviet and Western approaches
to the problem, which resulted in dramatic tension and bloodshed in the territory of former Soviet Union. The goal
of the research is to compare the main approaches to the theory of ethnic conflict and to provide its own vision of
the topic, taking into account the current ethnicity-based tensions and apprehension in the region, including
Kazakhstan, the home country of the author.
Keywords: ethnic conflict, Kazakhstani experts
Chi-Sing Li, Yu-Fen Lin, Yung-Lien Lai, Daniel Eckstein, Bill Mullener
A research study of student teachers implementing classroom encouragement
Abstract: Encouragement is a process whereby one focuses on an individual’s resources in order to build that
person’s self-esteem, self-confidence and feelings of worth. Encouragement involves focusing on any resource that
can be turned into an asset or strength. Dreikurs (1981) said that humans need encouragement like a plant needs
water. He believed that every person with whom one comes in contact feels better or worse depending upon how
others behave toward him or her.
Keywords: Personal power, quiet power, Carl Rogers
Abstract: The paper discloses the essence of the ‘continuity’ notion within the context of its relation to the
discontinuity. Revealing the continual logics as the logics of sense the author uses mathematical Bayes’ theorem
for the modern humanitarian education on the basis of V. Nalimov’s theory. The theorem discloses the meaning of
the semantic field and images represented in the cultural texts.
Keywords: continuity, discontinuity, semantic field, sense, image, humanitarian education
Hukamdad, Saqib Shahzad, Riasat Ali, Muhammad Zaigham Qadeer, Muhammad Saeed Khan
Comparison of teachers' and students' views on the use of behaviour modification techniques at secondary level
Abstract: This research article aimed at comparing of teachers' and students' views on the use of behaviour
modification techniques at secondary level. All the teachers serving and students studying in government
secondary schools of Punjab were constituted as the population of the study. A sample of one thousand teachers
and students were randomly selected in such a way that the proportion of rural and urban, boys and girls
secondary school teachers was fifty fifty.
Keywords: comparing of teachers' and students', behaviour modification techniques, secondary level
Aijaz Ahmed Gujjar, Naeemullah Bajwa, Ghazala Shaheen
Comparison of student’s learning achievements in mathematics over a period of three years (Grade 8 to Grade 10)
Abstract: The main purpose of the study was to compare the achievements of the students, over a period of three
years, from grade 8 to grade 10 in the subject of Mathematics. To achieve the desired end, 40 female students
were selected as sample that got admission in school and passed their matriculation exam (Grade 10) from the
selected school. Their marks in the subject of Mathematics were taken which they had achieved over a period of
three years from grade 8 to grade 10 and analyzed by calculating mean and applying paired sample t-test and
Keywords: achievements, mathematics, declined, trend
Eno Etudor-Eyo, Ime E. Emah, Grace K. Etuk, Ijeoma A. Archibong
Assessing the quality of educational research in Nigeria
Abstract: The study assessed the quality of educational research in Nigeria in terms of context, process and
product. The ex-post facto design was used and 53 research reports selected from 7 national educational journals
were assessed by 106 research experts. The research instrument was a six-point rating scale with 0.83 reliability
Keywords: educational research, academic development, Nigeria
Abstract: This paper reviews various types of curriculum integration models in general as well as in science and
mathematics education. In light of these models a new five points model of integration called transitional model of
integration is presented with examples. This model is designed for science education more specifically for
mathematics education. However it is not confined to these areas and can also be utilized for other subjects in the
school curriculum. The model focuses on the integration of social issues in school curriculum without addition of
other subjects and changing the time schedule of the school. In this model the knowledge about social issues can
be imparted to the children through teaching different subjects using subservient and thematic approach of
Keywords: Curriculum integration, Integration models, science, social issues
Fazalur Rahman, Nabi Bux Jumani, Ghulam Dastgeer, Saeed ul Hasan Chishti, Shaheen Ashraf Tahirkheli
Problem based learning in English language classes at secondary level
Abstract: This paper reported some of the findings of a study conducted on the use of problem based learning in the
English language class at secondary level. It was descriptive study conducted in secondary schools of Islamabad.
The population of the study included 62 secondary school teachers involved in teaching of English. Data was
collected through questionnaire. The study found that teachers were well aware about problem based learning and
its procedure. However, it was used seldom in the classroom. The study concluded a comprehensive training in the
use of this technique in the classroom.
Keywords: Problem based learning, English teaching, Secondary school teaching
Safqat Hussain, Saeed Anwar, Muhammad Iqbal Majoka
Effect of peer group activity-based learning on students’ academic achievement in physics at secondary level
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ‘peer group activity-based Learning’ on academic
achievement of secondary schools students in the subject of physics. In this study, an achievement test (pre-test/
post-test) covering seven chapters was used as measuring instrument. Depending upon pre-test scores, 88
science students of 10th class were divided into two equal groups (n=44) named as experimental group and control
Keywords: Peer group instruction, activity-based learning, academic achievement
Saqib Shahzad, Riasat Ali, Hukamdad, Sanaullah Khan
Impact of heads’ planning skill on students’ academic achievement
Abstract: Planning is the life blood of any enterprise. Education is the preparation of future generation for
shouldering responsibilities of life. This gigantic task is impossible without proper planning. Planning is the
conceptual skill of management whereby, future strategy is established, and alternatives are devised in order to
divert attention to another alternative if the first one fails to get goals. The main objectives are: 1) to compare the
managerial skill of planning of the heads on the variables of school type, designation, qualification total experience
and experience in the present school. 2) To explore the impact of managerial skill of planning on students
achievement. The researcher recommends that training in planning skills should be given to all heads to have
effective school management and better students’ achievements.
Keywords: planning, education, students’ achievements
Qaisara Parveen, Sheikh Tariq Mahmood, Azhar Mahmood, Manzoor Arif
Effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of 8th grade students in the subject of social studies
Abstract: The study was designed to explore the effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of 8th
grade students in the subject of social studies. It was hypothesized that there is significant difference between
mean posttest achievement score of the experimental group and mean achievement score of the control group.
The pretest posttest control group design was chosen for the experiment.
Keywords: cooperative learning, academic achievement
M. Saeed Khan, Shaukat Hussain, Riasat Ali, M. Iqbal Majoka, Muhammad Ramzan
Effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of 8th grade students in the subject of social studiesEffect of inquiry method on achievement of students in chemistry at secondary level
Abstract: This study was designed to see the effect of inquiry-based instruction as a supplementing strategy on the
academic achievement of secondary school students in the subject of chemistry. The major objectives of the study
were: to find out the relative effects of inquiry based instruction as supplementing strategy on the academic
achievement in chemistry and to explore the difference between treatment effects on the students of high and low
intelligence. The study was experimental in nature. Obtained data were analyzed by applying t-test. Findings show
the supremacy of inquiry approach.
Keywords: Inquiry approach, student centered, supplementary strategy, Chemistry
Riasat Ali, Siqa Iqbal, Saqib Shahzad, M. Zaigham Qadeer, Umar Ali Khan
Use of reinforcement practices in the educational institutions and its impacts on student motivation
Abstract: The major purpose of this study was to identify positive and negative reinforcement practices in the
educational institutions. It was a descriptive study. Check list was used as tool of the study and collected was
analyzed by applying t-test. Result shows that use of reinforcement practices enrich the motivation of the students.
Urban teachers’ attitude towards students in the form various reinforcement practices is more positive as compared
to the rural teachers.
Keywords: Learning, Motivation, Positive Reinforcement, Negative reinforcement
Muhammad Sarwar, Muhammad Imran Yousuf, Asif Naveed Ranjha
Usefulness and level of interest in Pakistan national curriculum subjects: secondary school students’ perceptions
Abstract: The study aimed to observe the perceptions of secondary school students in respect of interest and
usefulness toward National Curriculum Subjects being studied by them at 9th and 10th grades, known as Pakistan
National Curriculum Year Groups (PNCYG-9 and PNCYG-10). The purposive sampling technique was used and a
sample of 100 students (56 boys, 44 girls) was selected from both years’ groups in a way that 21 students from
PNCY-9 and 79 students from PNCYG-10 were selected among sample. An amended form of questionnaire by
Wakefield and Pumfrey (2009) was used as tool of research. The data was collected for 13 PNC subjects and
categorized on usefulness rating scale and interest scale ratings towards these subjects. Students as whole
perceived PNC subjects as both useful and interesting although girls were more positive about their subjects than
Keywords: Pakistan National Curriculum; policy and practice; decision-making; students’ voice; gender.
Saqib Shahzad, Riasat Ali, Muhammad Zaighem Qadeer, Hukamdad, Muhammad Saeed Khan
Community attitude towards female education
Abstract: Education is basic right of each individual. Provision of educational facilities to all its masses is the
obligation of society. In social perspective of the society, education is directly related to the development of the
society. Females are the half population of the country. If we can not educate this youth part of our population, we
can not develop our country on sound bases. The major purpose of the study was to investigate the community
attitude towards female education in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Keywords: Social perspective, Community attitude, Basic right.
Shaukat Hayat, Ibraheem Khattak, Azhar Mahmood, Shazia Zameer
A Comparative study of Credibility of Examinations conducted by Boards of Intermediate & Secondary Education and Educational Testing and Evaluation Agency in Pakistan
Abstract: The study aims to establish credibility of examinations conducted by Boards of Intermediate & Secondary
Education (BISE) and educational testing & evaluation Agency (ETEA) in NWFP. The population of the study
consisted of all the Boards of Intermediate & Secondary Education in NWFP and all the intermediate level students
who have appeared in both the above-mentioned examinations. The sample of the study was 541 students.
Keywords: Examination System, Achievement, Credibility, Educational Testing
Iftikhar Hussain Shah, Fazalur Rahman, Muhammad Ajmal, Hafiz M. Hamidullah
Situation analysis of technical education and vocational training: a case study from Pakistan
Abstract: The technical education and vocational training can help individuals to generate income and contribute
towards economic growth and social development of a country by acquiring knowledge and skills. This study aimed
at analysing the present situation of technical education and vocational training in Punjab, Pakistan. It was survey
study. The sample consisted of 100 personnel associated with vocational training program. A questionnaire
consisting of 15 items was used to collect primary data. Using OLS technique, this study concludes that the
curriculum of TEVT was good but its linkage with industry was found weak and internship was not being properly
managed. It was also found that the outgoing students were not ready for job market. On the basis of findings
certain recommendation were made.
Keywords: Technical Education, Vocational Training, TEVTA, Pakistan
Shaukat Hussain, Riasat Ali, M. Saeed Khan, Muhammad Ramzan, M. Zagham Qadeer
Attitude of secondary school teachers towards teaching profession
Abstract: The main aim of study was to measure the attitude of secondary school teachers towards their teaching
profession. This study was descriptive in nature. An Attitude Scale Towards Teaching Profession (ASTTP)
developed by Hussain (2004), having sixty-six items and four components was administered to the respondents to
determine the subjects’ attitude towards teaching profession. All the secondary school teachers, teaching at
secondary level in district Multan(Pakistan) constituted the population of the study. Forty secondary schools
comprising male and female, rural and urban, and public and private were selected as a sample of the study.
Keywords: Secondary Education, Teacher's Attitude, Teaching Profession, Positive attitude, Rural and Urban, Secondary School Teachers
Enkelena Shockett (Qafleshi)
Book review: Daniel Gile-"Basic concepts and models for Interpreter and translator training"
Abstract: "Basic Concepts and Models for Interpreter and Translator
Training" is a textbook written by Daniel Gile and published by
John Benjamins Press in year 2009, offers concepts, models,
techniques, approaches, as well as tactics, rules and suggestions
to deal with translation and interpreting issues theoretically,
practically, pedagogically and methodologically.
Keywords: basic concepts, translation
Fatemeh Mosazadeh-Sayadmahaleh, Yusef Esmaeilzadeh-Estakhrbijar, Ghassem Habibi Bibalani
Study on Application of Viola odorata in poems by Hafez
Abstract: Viola odorata is a species of the genus Viola native to Europe and Asia. It is commonly known as Sweet
Violet, English Violet, Common Violet, or Garden Violet. The herb is known as Banafsa, Banafsha or Banaksa in
India and Iran. Khwaja Samsu d-Din Muḥammad Hafez-e Sirazi, known by his pen name Hafez (1315–1390) was a
Persian lyric poet. Viola odorata has been used at 11 poetry lines that at 6 lines used this plant in Metaphor and at
3 lines used in Simile. This plant has been used for Metaphor for Lip Line (in 1 line), Green line beard (in 1 line),
Hair (in 3 lines) and Angel (in 1 line) and has been used for Simile for having head on knee for pain (in 1 line) and
hair (in 2 lines).
Keywords: Simile, Metaphor, Viola odorata, poems, Hafez
Fatemeh Mosazadeh-Sayadmahaleh, Yusef Esmaeilzadeh-Estakhrbijar, Ghassem Habibi Bibalani
Application of Judas tree (Cercis siliquastrum) in poems by Hafez
Abstract: Cercis siliquastrum, commonly known as Judas tree, is a small deciduous tree from Southern Europe and
Western Asia which is noted for its prolific display of deep-pink flowers in spring. Khwaja Samsu d-Din Muḥammad
Hafez-e Sirazi, known by his pen name Hafez (1315–1390) was a Persian lyric poet. Cercis siliquastrum has been
used at 9 poetry lines that at 2 lines used this plant in Metaphor and at 3 lines used in Simile. Judas tree has been
used for Metaphor for Flush (in 2 lines). Judas tree has been used for Simile for Red wine (in 3 lines).
Keywords: Simile, Metaphor, Judas Tree, Cercis siliquastrum, poems, Hafez
Abstract: This study shows that the Șād prefixed chapters use the radical in different manners and there is a certain
affinity of Șād related words and phrases in these chapters which Rehman (2008) established with reference to Alif
lam and meem in the six related chapters. The study also shows that all the three chapters mentioned below have
a common theme of zikr which is foregrounded. On the other hand, every chapter has an individual angle of zikr
such as sabr’ perseverance in chapter Șād, sidq ‘truthfulness in Maryam ‘Mary’ and well wishing characters, al
a’raaf, Moreover, the prefixed letter Șād has a role in organization of the three chapters of great Prophets
Keywords: Șād, Mary, Al A’raf, Quran